THOMPSON II
by
ELDER STANLEY C. PHILLIPS

                                                             Simple Truth: Chapter 1

                                                                                       Written by Wilson Thompson

DISCOURSE 1.

On the Being of God, his Majesty, and the obligations all the world is under to worship him. ALL gospel truth is calculated to reveal God to man, in his nature, and works of providence and grace. In this work we shall therefore speak; First, of the truth of the being of God. Secondly, show that there is but one God. Thirdly, hint at his Majesty, and the obligation all the world is under to worship him; for what he is, and for his creating and preserving goodness.

1. The truth of the being of God is abundantly proved, by the things that are made; which declare his eternal power and Godhead. This terraqueous globe, with all its variety of animate and inanimate productions, afford sufficient evidence to prove to every unbiased mind, not only the being, but also the power and wisdom of the great architect. Let your eyes turn to the heavens, behold the sun, moon and stars; then ask your reason, if these are the works of chance. Follow the astronomer, while he persues those orbs through the hemisphere, then ask yourself; if chance can produce such order, or fulfill such regular revolutions; than contemplate within yourselves, and ask, am I the work of chance? does any man live by chance, or die by chance? No, reason forbids the conclusion; and stands convinced of the being, power, wisdom and eternity of God: but how to think, or speak of God, or how to understand him in his existence, perfections, or grace, is too unsearchable for reason; here it must stop; and stand as a humble inquirer, to receive instruction from revelation; for without this, reason must be for ever confused to find out what God is like; and with thousands of the heathen, we might be led to suppose, he is like the sun, the stars, the leck or onion, man, or gold; and so be led to worship some of those creatures: this is the best, that reason can teach, without revelation. For a proof of this, contrast the ideas of the heathen, respecting the supreme being, with the ideas of those that are blest with the book of revelation; seeing then, that reason must receive, and revelation is all that can instruct in this matter; let us hear what the scripture saith of this mystery; for there God speaks of himself, explaining his nature and grace; saying in Exod. 34.5. And the Lord passed by before him, (Moses) and proclaimed the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth. Num. 14.18. The Lord is long suffering and of great mercy. In the sacred scriptures, God reveals his being in the most convincing language, by his inspired servants, as in the 90th. Psalm 2d. verse, Before the mountains were brought fourth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting thou art God. Psalm 93.2. Thy throne is established of old, thou art from 1everlasting. Isaiah 44. 6. we have the words of God as follows: thus saith the Lord the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the Lord of Hosts, I AM the first, and I AM the last; and beside me there is no God; Isaiah 57. 15. For thus saith the high and lofty one that inhabiteth eternity. Here the convinced Nebuchadnezzar, saying; Dan. 4. 34; I praised and honoured him that liveth for ever, whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom is from generation to generation. See Dan. 12.7. Rev. 4.9.10 and 10.6 and 15.7 and Heb. 1. 12. Art thou not from everlasting, O Lord my God, mine holy one. Thus while we attend to revelation, as our instructor, God is made known, as one who is glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders in the earth. This brings us to the second particular, to shew that there is but one God.

2. Men curious in their inquiries, ask to know, how many God’s there are; we answer; there are lords many and gods many, (such as reason have invented and heathens do worship,) but to us (who are taught by revelation,) there is but one only true and living God; and this the following passages, abundantly prove; See Amos, 4. 13. For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man what are his thoughts, and maketh morning darkness, and treadeth upon the high places of the earth, the Lord, the God of hosts is his name. Exod. 34. 14. For thou shalt worship no other God; for the Lord whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God. Psalms 82: 18. That men may know, that thou whose name alone is Jehovah, art the most high over all the earth. Deut. 6. 4. Here O Israel, the Lord our God is but one Lord. Isaiah 44. 8. Is there a God besides me? yea, there is no God; I know not any; Isaiah 45. 21. 22. There is no God else besides me, a just God and a Saviour, there is none besides me; look unto me, and be ye saved all ye ends of the earth, for I am God and there is none else. 1. Cor. 8.4.6. There is none other God but one; to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him. If the above scriptures do prove any thing, they all go to prove that there is one, and but one only true and living God. And we shall now attempt to shew that God is an undivided, uncompounded spirit, without personal form or parts; and for this purpose we call in the following witnesses. 2. Cor. 3. 17. Now, the Lord is that spirit; and where the spirit of the Lord is there is liberty; thus we learn that God is a spirit, and they that worship him, must worship in spirit and in truth; thus where the spirit of the Lord is mentioned in scripture, we are to understand no other; then the same God in his spiritual operations, this is evident from Peters words to Ananias; Acts 5. 3. 4. Why hath Satan filled thin heart to lie to the Holy Ghost? thou hast not lied unto men but unto God. That the Holy Ghost is the true God, appears again in the case of Mary’s conception, recorded Luke 4. 35. And the angel answered and said unto her, the Holy Ghost shall overshadow thee; therefore also, that the holy thing, which shall be born of thee, shall be called the son of God. When God is declared to be everywhere present, it is under the name spirit, as in Psalms 139. 7. Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? When God gave spiritual gifts to men, though the gifts were diverse, yet they were all by the same spirit, thus we have seen that there is a God, that there is but one God, and that he is a spirit. That God is undivided and uncompounded, is evident from those scriptures, already

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mentioned; and many more that might be called in, if we deemed it necessary, such as, Mark 12.29. And Jesus answered him the first of all the commandments is, hear O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord: verse 30. And thou shalt love the Lord thy God, with all thy heart; &c. verse 32. And the scribes said unto him, well, Master, thou hast said the truth; for there is one God, and there is none other but he; the 34th verse inform us, that the scribes answered discretely. Deut. 4. 39. Know therefore, this day, and consider it in thine heart, that the Lord he is God in heaven above, and upon earth beneath; there is none else, and as this will be treated upon more largely in another place, we shall pass on to notice, the majesty of God, and the obligation all the world is under to worship him. 3. The Majesty of God is taught in the scriptures as follows; see Judges, 29. 11. 12. Thine O Lord, is the greatness and the power, and the glory, and the victory and the majesty: for all that is in the heaven and in the earth, is thine, thine is the kingdom O Lord, and thou art exalted as head above all; both riches and honour come of thee, and thou reignest over all. Neh. 9. 32. Our God the great the mighty and the terrible God. Job 37. 22 with God is terrible majesty, Psalms 29. 3. 4. The voice of the Lord is upon the waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful. The voice of the Lord is full of majesty. A display of the majesty of God is recorded in the 18th. Psalm, from verse 7. to 15. The earth shook and trembled; the foundations also of hills moved and were shaken, because he was wroth. There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth, devoured, coals were kindled by it. He bowed the heavens also, came down and darkness was under his feet, and he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind. He made darkness his secret place: his pavilion round about him, were dark waters, and thick clouds of the skies: At the brightness that was before him, his thick clouds passed, hailstones and coals of fire. The Lord also thundered in the heavens, and the Highest gave his voice; hailstones and coals of fire. Yea he sent out his arrows, and scattered them: Then the channels of waters were seen, and the foundations of the world were discovered at thy rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils. Thus the Majesty of the one undivided God, is illustrated in the scriptures of truth, as one that is worthy of the praise of all other beings, or things; but man is not only under obligations to praise God, for what he is in the majesty of his sovereign character, but for discriminating benefits, bestowed upon him, in his creation, and endowments in Edom, and for the long suffering of God toward him; in and since the fall. David called for fire and trees, and all things animate and inanimate, to praise God, but in the ardor of his spirit, when addressing man, he says; O that men would praise the Lord for his goodness and for his wonderful works to the children of men; if life is a blessing, God ought to be praised, for he is the giver and supporter of it; if superiority above the beasts that perish, is a privilege; if language to communicate our thoughts to each other is a favour; God ought to be praised for it; for he has bestowed this favour on us; in a word, if reasonable faculties, or a rational mind are blessings vouchsafed to us, it demands us to worship the donor, of all those blessings.

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And when we recount all the favours of God to man, how great are our obligations to worship him; let us contrast ourselves with the meanest brute, or worm, and then ask; why was I superior to them? Look back to creation, and see ten thousands of living creatures spoken into being by the word of God, but man alone bears the image of his creator, to him alone the right of subduing the earth is given; and shall man who is thus distinguished by his creator, not feel himself under obligations, to worship a God, so good, so kind. – Yes, we should praise thee dearest Lord, Behold my heart and see; And turn each cursed idol out, That dares to rival thee. Let each reader reflect, with thankful heart, on the high estate in which he was created, and ask himself, if it is not rational to say; thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. Here we see man made of the dust of the ground, no better dust, than that, out of which the beasts were made, but, behold, he is made in honour, he is made upright, he was wisdom to converse with his creator, and to give names to all the rest that were created; we all conclude, that man in his creation, ought to have worshiped God. But alas! man is fallen, and has become poor and miserable; a child of wrath, an enemy to God, and unreconciled to his law, &c. But does this remove his obligation to worship God? no, by this he is indisposed, but this can make no relaxation in his obligations, so far from it, that it shows his obligations in a clearer light than before; for though he has proved rebellious on his part, yet God is the same and instead of striking the rebel dead, according to the demerit of his crime, which he might have expected; and which according to the magnitude of his crime, he did deserve, yet God is sparing us in the world, and blessing us with ten thousand blessings every day; and are we not under obligations to praise him, for his preserving mercy? Or shall we try to plead an exemption on account of our indisposition occasioned by our sin? no, rather may we mourn over our rebellion against God, and feel ourselves under the strongest obligations to worship him, and join with the poet while he sings. O may we loose these worthless tongues, When they refuse thy praise. We should not only feel ourselves under obligations to worship God, but we should esteem it our greatest privilege, and should take pleasure in it, for the angels own this as their sweet and delightful work; and the spirits of just men made perfect, claim this as their highest employment, and while the man is called to participate, in an employment which fills heaven with delight, shall he find no pleasure in it? or, shall we think of being happy in heaven, while the praise of God affords us no pleasure below, we might as well promise ourselves happiness in tasting gall, as of happiness in heaven, while the praise of God affords us no pleasure; but if this is the joy of our spirits on earth, which makes us long for better qualifications to perform this pleasurable work, it unites our hearts while we sing. “I’ll praise my maker with my breath, And when my voice is lost in death,

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Praise shall employ my nobler powers, My days of praise shall ne’r be past, While life and thought and being last, Or immortality endures.” Thus we have briefly shewed, that there is but one God and that he is an uncompounded spirit; and that all the world is under the strongest obligation to worship him, and now we shall close this chapter, by making some enquiry into the reason, why men do not praise God. – First, because man is an enemy to God; and therefore does not love his praise; but loves sin, and rolls it as a sweet morsel under his tongue, and so has unqualified himself to praise God with delight, until his enmity is slain, and he reconciled to God, and brought to feel interested in the glory of the divine character. Secondly, because man is dead, and does not feel his obligation to God, but hates him, and loves death; and prefers a little more sleep, a little more slumber, a little more folding and hands to sleep. Thirdly, because man is blind, and deaf; and his whole mind, and conscience, and will depraved; and in order to his ever being prepared for the worship of God, he must be quickened and made alive, and the love of God must be shed abroad in his heart, by the Holy Ghost; his eyes must be opened to see the glory of God, in the face of Jesus; his ears must be unstopt to the voice of the Son of God; or the word of life which we preach, he must be renewed in the spirit of his mind, his heart sprinkled from an evil conscience; and his will subdued to the government of Christ: then, and not till then, will he feel his obligation to praise God, but this being done by the spirit, we love his praise, and are thus prepared to be happy in heaven, which we never could have been, without this change; O that this happy change, may be wrought in your soul, reader, if you are not the subject of it; for without it you are wretched; but with it you are blest.

DISCOURSE II.

On The Divinity of Christ. As we have treated on the being of God in the foregoing discourse, we shall devote this, to the divine nature of Jesus Christ; and attempt to prove that his divinity, is not another, but the same God described in the foregoing. The divine nature of Christ has long been a subject of dispute; in the christian world, some have become warm advocates on the one side, and some on the other, arguments have been used on both sides, and when those were found too weak to convince, or to unite the parties, persecution and the sword, or fire and fagot, were used in order to supply the place of more weighty arguments. Thus the church of Rome and the Arians contended with each other, but after all, the case is not decided, in the mind of the public, America hath not had its fertile soil stained with the martyrs blood, in this debate; but the church of Christ; even in America, has suffered greatly, on account of division of sentiment on this subject, within thirty years past; some pieces have

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been published, on both sides of the question; and perhaps they have both run to an extreme, in some things; for I have discovered that the Trinitarians, have uniformly endeavoured to prove, three persons distinct in the Godhead; and that each person is truly and properly God. In this point they have failed, and ever must fail. The Arians on this account charge them with worshiping a family of Gods, and are emboldened in denying to acknowledge, or worship any God but the Father. In this part of our work, we shall pay no attention, to any former opinions of men or parties, but endeavour to follow the scripture, as our only rule , and from it argue the case, against errors on every side of truth, as the case may require and truth demand. First, We shall attempt to prove that the divine nature of Christ is very God. Secondly, That he is not distinct from the Father, but he is the Father.Thirdly, Show that there is no other God worthy to be worshiped but the God in Christ. 1. We are not to attempt to prove, that the divine nature of Christ is very God. That the divine nature of Christ, is very God; is evident from the following passages, Matt. 1. 23. Behold a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emanuel, which being interpreted is God with us; 1 Tim. 3. 6. God was manifest in the flesh, Isaiah 9. 6. 7. For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulders; and his name shall be called wonderful, counselor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the prince of peace; of the increase of his government, and peace, there shall be no end. Heb. 1. 8. Unto the Son he saith, thy throne O God, is for ever and ever: a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of thy kingdom. Those passages are so express to our purpose, that we think it unnecessary to transcribe any more here; for our point is settled, without any comment or illustration; for were we to write a ream of paper, we could do no more, than prove that the divine nature of Christ is God. And this the above passages emphatically declare to be a fact beyond controversy. So we shall proceed, to the second thing proposed, which is to show that the divine nature of Christ, is not distinct from the Father, but is the Father. 2. But for proof of this, that God in Christ is the Father, here the following witnesses, in addition to these quoted in the first head of this discourse, in which we have clearly seen that the divine nature of Christ is God; but he is not another than the Father, but is the Father; See Deut. 32, 39. See how that I, even I, am he and there is no God with me, I kill, and I make alive, I wound and I heal, neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand, Rev. 1. 8. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. Col. 1. 16, 17. For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in the earth visible and invisible, whither they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by him, and for him: and he is before all things and by him all things consist; thus the scripture abounds with proof, that the whole Godhead dwelt in Christ bodily; and when we speak of the divinity of Christ, we 6mean no other than the one undivided God, that was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself. For he that will not give his glory to another, nor his praise to graven images, when he bringeth his first begotten into the world, saith and let all the angels of God worship him. He is called the only wise God our Saviour; the just God and the Saviour; the true God and eternal life; now if there is any other God, than the God in Christ, he is not a true God, nor a wise God, nor a just God, nor a Saviour; for the above witnesses testifies that the God in Christ is the only potentate the king eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God our Saviour, so we feel fully justifiable in saying with Paul; Jesus Christ my Lord; and with Thomas, my Lord and my God: for if we like Philip wish to see the Father, Jesus is saying have I been so long with you and hast thou not seen me, he that hath seen me hath seen the Father, believest thou not, that I am in the Father, and the Father in me. I and the Father are one. Thus we might fill a volume with texts of scriptures that unquestionably prove, that the God in Christ, was none other than the Father. But as in the mouth of two or three witnesses, every word should be established; and we have already brought in more than twice that number: we shall pass on to the third thing proposed. 3. To shew that there is no other God worthy to be worshipped but the God in Christ. The foregoing scriptures abundantly demonstrate, that there is but one God and he in Christ, and as we are commanded to have no other God’s before him, then it is impossible for us to worship any other God without being guilty of a breach of this commandment, and of gross idolatry in so doing. But I am aware of an objection here, from such as would wish to establish the idea, of three distinct persons, in the Godhead; and that we may be rightly understood on this subject, I shall be very particular, and use great plainess of speech, believing that he dividing of the Godhead in to three distinct persons, is unwarrantable from scripture, and it is a mischievous tradition of men, which only is calculated to invelope the truth, and perplex the mind of men, and if we might judge, the most effectual way to make the world abound with Arians, and infidels; for if there are three distinct persons truly and properly God, there must be as certainly, three true and proper Gods, distinct from each other, as three persons distinct from each other; or if there are three distinct persons and each of them truly and properly God, they must be each independent of the other, is not this the same as to say, there are three independent God’s, one in each distinct person. I have seen a good deal of fruitless labour from the press, endeavouring to prove three distinct persons in the Godhead, but it never was, nor never will be proved by scripture; and while we spend our time about words, and persons, and try to prove three distinct persons in the Godhead, by deductions from scripture and implied evidence, we weaken our own side, and give the Arian room to charge us with worshiping three Gods; one in each of the three distinct persons, but I can read nothing in the scripture about those persons; I can read of the glory of God in the face of Jesus, of God manifest in the flesh, and of Christ, who is the brightness of his Fathers glory, and is the

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express image of his person; and wherever person is mentioned in scripture with refference to God, there is evidently an allusion to the person of Christ, and so it is not persons as of many, but of one which is Christ. The idea of three distinct persons in the Godhead like all the other Popish traditions, is calculated to perplex the mind and introduce, different grades of worship; sometimes worship the person of the father, and this is the highest and greatest solemnity; sometimes prostrate themselves before the persons of the Son, and plead with him to invoke the father in their behalf; and sometimes bow to the Holy Spirit, and we think this is the most likely way, that the worship of saints, relicks and images of the persons of God was introduced; thus they have represented the person of the father as almost concealed in glory, the person of the Son, like a man, and the person of the Holy Ghost like a dove; are these the representations of the Godhead? or, is it not rather changeing the glory, of the incorruptible God into the image of corruptible man, or fowls of the air. The three distinct persons in one undivided God is an unreconcilable assertion; to say that there is but one God, and yet that there are three persons distinct, and each of them truly and properly God; must make a paradoxical appearance to every thinking person, but in order to prove three distinct persons in the Godhead, this text is urged. There are three that bare record in heaven, the Father, the word, and the Holy Ghost, but does this say one word about persons in the Godhead? or does it not undeniably teach that these three are one? now if the three that bare record in heaven, are persons; then the three being one is also person; then it stands thus, there are three persons, that bare record in heaven, the Father, the Word and the Holy Ghost; and these three persons, are but one person; but to avoid this perplexity, some would venture to add and read or explain it thus, these three persons are one God; and thus reading, adding, and explaining, (or rather confusing) it conclude their point was proved, but when we cast off all prepossesion, and here the text speak for itself; it is plain: the Father is a name by which we understand God as being the first cause of all created things; and the Word is a name by which he manifest himself in any of his works, or appears in the person, or flesh of Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost is a name by which God speaks of himself as an invisible spirit; and thus God in creating the world bears record in heaven, that it is for his glory, they are and were created; God manifest in the flesh bears record of what creation was intended for and makes a display of his glory; and the same God under the name spirit; revealed the heavenly record to holy men of old who wrote the scriptures by inspiration of God, and thus God under the name Father, Word, and Holy Ghost, bears a three fold testimony, but is the same God, for these three are one. Now, reader, if you still believe, in three distinct persons in the Godhead, you must of course believe that each of these contain a third part of the godhead, and that the whole godhead is a compound of those three persons, uniting themselves together and making one compounded God, or else believe; that there are three distinct Gods, one in each distinct person and that they all act in such complete unison, that they are one in agreement of design and operation but I conclude, that by seeing this defect, in the Trinitarian plan of

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reasoning, have caused some to embrace the Arian plan; others Swedenborg’s opinion, and is a strong temptation to deism, on the one hand, or to the worshiping of a plurality of God’s on the other; but when this thirding of the Godhead, and compounding the three persons into one is left out of sight, we behold the glory of the incorruptible God as with open face, and admire the riches of his mercy and grace, while we hear him declaring himself our Saviour under the three names in which he bears record in heaven, saying under the character of the Father, I am the just God and Saviour; under the character of the Word, there is no other name given under heaven among men by which we must be saved; and under the character of the Holy Ghost, he hath saved us by the washing of regeneration, and the renewing of the Holy Ghost; being born of the spirit, we are born of God, and God is our Father, we are born again of an incorruptible seed by the word of God, thus the Father, the Word and the Holy Ghost, is the same God, by which we are saved and born again, and that which is but one, let no man put asunder. Thus we have seen, that God is not divided, and it naturally follows, there is no other God worthy to be worshiped, than the God in Christ and that his name; which is above every name, every knee shall bow, of things in heaven and things on earth, and of things under the earth, and every tongue shall confess that Jesus is Lord to the glory of God the Father. And may we all both writer and reader, be united in this record that God hath given of the Father; this record given by the Holy Ghost, that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in his Son; and now I close this discourse, by asking the question, what think ye of Christ whose Son is he. Some take him a creature to be, A man or an angel at most, Sure they have not feelings like me; Nor know themselves wretched and lost. If ask’d what of Jesus I think, Although my best thoughts are but poor, I say he’s my meet and my drink, My God, and my strength and my store.

DISCOURSE III

On the Human nature or manhood of Christ. We cannot read the Bible, without being convinced that Christ did exist in a nature, inferior to the Father, both before the world and since; and as we have seen in the foregoing discourse, that his divine nature was no other than the Fathers; we shall in this discourse shew wherein his inferiority did consist, and in order to be plain on this subject, we shall first speak of the soul or spirit of Christ, and secondly of his body or flesh. 1. Of the spirit or soul of Christ I understand that part of him which was brought forth before all worlds, and which was the medium of operation in

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creation, and the treasury in which grace was given us, before the world began; in which God chose his people, and gave them great and precious promises before the world was. But this doctrine of the Bible as all the rest of Gospel truth, found its enemies and even has been denied, a place in the Bible, or the sacred pages have been so much perverted by many that they have tried to turn this treasury with all its fullness out of gospel doors: but blessed be God he has given it such a permanent standing in the scriptures, that it will show itself in almost every page. But as error makes it necessary to illustrate truth we shall be a little more particular on this point, and so to the word and to the testimony. Ephes. 3. 8. 13. in the eighth verse, Paul seems much humbled under a sense of the work unto which he is called and says; unto me who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ, verse 9. And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world, hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ. Here the apostle speaks of God as creating all things and of Jesus Christ as that by which he did create all things; here we read of the mystery hid in God and of the unsearchable riches of Christ, now surely the riches of Christ are the mystery hid in God, then if the mystery hid in God is the unsearchable riches of Christ, by whom God created all things; then Christ must have been in existence, when God created all things by him, and as this cannot be said in truth of the flesh of Christ, and to assert it of his divine nature, would argue two Gods, and the one creating all things by the other, which we do not believe; therefore we must believe that it was spoken of the soul or spirit of Christ in which the unsearchable riches of Gods wisdom and grace did concentrate before all worlds; and were ordained to our glory, but now is made manifest by the appearing of Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel; and hath sent Paul to preach among the Gentiles, the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world to our glory; verse 10, to the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church, the manifold wisdom of God; verse 11, according to his eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord. Heb. 1. 2. Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds. This passage speaks of God and Christ, as being distinct from each other, and of God as being superior to Christ, God as the creator of the worlds and Christ as that by which he did create, God as the appointer of an heir, and Christ as being appointed heir of all things, now this will not apply to the flesh of Christ which did not then exist, nor to the divine nature of Christ, which was all the all creating God, and if this was applied to the divinity of Christ, it would not only argue two Gods, but would prove, that the Father was greater then the divine nature of Christ, as the appointer of an heir; is greater then the appointed heir; which is the very point that the Arians and Deists would wish to establish. But to apply it to the soul or spirit of Christ is easy; for this soul or spirit, was in the bosom of the Father before all worlds; and thus was appointed heir of all things; thus he heired the world, and as a

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consequence it cannot be destroyed until he is done with it, he heired a kingdom and will glorify it. &c. No one that takes the scripture for his guide, can deny but what Christ did pre­exist creation in a nature as much distinct from the Father, & as much inferior to him, as he was when he was here in the world; but some conclude he only existed in God’s decree, and not actually; but Abraham and all others pre­existed creation in God’s decree; but Christ says before Abraham was, I am, which does not mean decreatively but actually; Abraham and all Gods elect were in his decree before the world was; but were not brought forth until long since the world was, but Christ was brought forth before all worlds; the body of Christ existed in God’s decree before the creation, but was not brought forth until about 1821 years ago; but others would apply all those scriptures which speak of Christ as existing before the world to him as God, or to his divine nature; but if there applying them rightly, we should have sufficient witnesses to prove, not only that his divine nature was distinct from the Father; and consequently two Gods; but the divinity of the Son, or the God in Christ was inferior to the Father; who brought him forth, set him up, appointed him heir, and made the worlds by him, &c. When we hear it said in Heb. 10. 5. 6. 7. wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith sacrifice and offering thou wouldst not, but a body hast thou prepared me, in burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure. Then said I, Lo, I come in the volume of the Book it is written of me to do thy will, O God. In this passage we all agree Christ is to be understood as the speaker, but it was not his divine nature, unless there were two Gods, one speaking to another, and telling him, that he had come to do his will, which is not truth according to the Bible record that God hath given of himself, saying there is no God besides me; I know not any. Nor was the speaker in the text the body of Christ, but that for which God had prepared a body, for the speaker to assume when he came into the world; hence it appears that the speaker of the text must have been the soul or spirit of Christ for which a body was prepared of God; and as the children were partakers of flesh and blood he also took part of the same. But why do you call the pre­existent part of Christ his soul or spirit? – My reasons for calling it so are First, because I read of no other constituent parts of Christ then soul or spirit, and body or flesh, except the Godhead that dwelt in him, and as the speaker in the last mentioned text; and many other similar ones, will neither apply to the God­head nor flesh of Christ; they do most cordially apply to the soul or spirit of Christ. My second reason is, because I read of his taking on him a body or flesh, but I never read of his taking on him a soul or spirit; I therefore believe that the soul or spirit, was that part of him, which was with the Father before all worlds, for which a body was prepared, in God’s purpose of wisdom. And my third reason is because I read of Christ, existing distinct from, and inferior to the Father, before the world, and as nobody ever believed that the flesh of Christ did exist before the world, and as I do not believe that the divinity of Christ was either distinct from, or inferior to the Father, I cannot see how the scripture can be understood in any other way. And my fourth and last reason that I shall mention here is, because the soul or spirit is the man, both in scripture and common usage, for instance, see in the

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case of Paul; I knew a man, whether in body or out of the body I cannot tell. And Jesus said unto the thief on the cross this day shalt thou be with me in Paradise. And in common conversation, speaking of the death of a person; we say the man is gone to the eternal world, while his body is yet with us, and friends weeping around it: the soul can live without the body, but not the body without the soul; these are my reasons; for calling the pre­existent part of Christ his soul or spirit. You will observe that whenever the scriptures speak of Christ distinct from God, they speak of him as being inferior to him, both before the world and since; except when the writers were proving that he was the true God, or speaking of his divine nature. Thus where Solomon in Prov. 8. from the 22. to 31. verse is personating Christ; the whole passage goes to prove, that he did pre­exist creation, in a nature distinct from, and inferior to the Father; the whole passage reads thus, the Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When there were no depths, I was brought forth, when there were no fountains abounding with water. Before the mountains were settled, before the hills was I brought forth: While as yet he had not made the earth nor the fields nor the highest part of the dust of the world. When he prepared the heavens I was there, when he set a compass upon the face of the depth: When he established the clouds above: When he strengthened the fountains of the deep: When he gave the sea his decree, that the waters should not pass his commandment: When he appointed the foundations of the earth: Then I was by him, as one brought up with him, and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him: rejoicing in the habitable parts of his earth; and my delights were with the sons of men. Now is it possible that any man is ingenious enough, to explain away the true sense of this whole passage, where the speaker under the personal pronoun, me, says the Lord possessed me, in the beginning of his way, before his works of old: Does he mean the Lord possessed the divine nature of Christ then we are to understand it as though it had read thus; the Lord possessed the Lord, in the beginning &c; and yet there is but one Lord and his name one, or, are we to understand that the flesh of Christ was the speaker, and the Lord possessed that flesh before his works of old; then the flesh of Christ must have been brought forth before the earth was, or the fountains abounded with water, &c. not in Gods decree but actually capable of rejoicing before God, and having his delights with the sons of men; this cannot be said in truth, of the flesh of Christ, for this speaker, afterwards took on him a body of flesh; so that we see that it can neither be the divine nature of Christ, which was never brought forth nor set up by any, but was the self­existent and independent God, and therefore could not address another being, as the speaker in the above text does. Again if the speaker in this text, was the divine nature of Christ, and that divine nature was God; then this is a flat contradiction to that testimony which God bears; saying there is no God with me; for the speaker says, then I was with him, &c. Every rational man that reads and weighs the passage in his own mind, must be convinced that Solomon did not design to personate the God in Christ, nor the flesh of Christ in this passage; but if any should still think, that

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the speaker was either his Godhead, or flesh, I would ask how, or by whom, was the Godhead set up? how, or by whom, was it brought forth? how was it inferior to the Father, or so distinct from him, as to speak as the speaker in the above text does? or if his body or flesh was the speaker, I would ask, was his body or flesh brought forth before creation? was it rejoicing then before God and having its delights with the sons of men &c. Again when we read of God the Father, or the Godhead of Christ, or the body of Christ, it is always expressed in the masculine gender but the speaker in the above text, is distinguished by the feminine gender; this is a grammatical error if God is intended, or if the flesh or body of Christ is intended; but if the soul of Christ is intended it is proper. – According to Harrison on gender, virtue and vice with their species; the soul, the earth, &c. are feminine according to Murry on gender, those again are made feminine; which are conspicuous for the attributes of diety; containing or bringing forth, or which are peculiarly beautiful or amiable. Thus the soul or spirit is properly called; she standeth and puteth forth her voice, &c. Thus the soul of Christ is the receptacle of all the Fathers purposes, promises and grace, and bringing them forth to us, is properly under a figurative expression, classed in the feminine. So we see this whole passage is only applicable to the pre­existent soul or spirit of Christ which was brought forth before all worlds; and in whom all the elect were chosen; in whom grace was given them, before the world was made in whom all the promises of God, are yea and Amen. Thus the whole passage is rendered easy, and he that reads may run. See Gen. 1. 26. And God said, let us make man in our image, and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth. Chap. 2. 7. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground; and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul. In the former passage it is said, let us make man in our image, or in the image of us both and give him dominion, &c. It is said in the latter; that, after man was formed of the dust of the ground, God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul, thus man was created in the image of both the us, mentioned in the former text, in the image of God; because he was governor over the lower creation, to replenish and subdue the earth: and in the image of the soul of Christ; because he became a living soul: And as Adam was constituted the head and representative of all his posterity, and their happiness and innocence were lodged in him, and their standing or falling depended entirely on him; he was a beautiful figure of him that was to come, or of the pre­existent soul of Christ, who was constituted head or representative of all his posterity; in whom all grace and spiritual blessings were lodged for them; and their happiness depended altogether on him, chap. 3. 22. And the Lord God said; behold the man is become as one of us; to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever. From this verse we learn, that man became like one of the us mentioned in the text, by eating the forbidden fruit; but surely no one can conclude that man by sinning, made himself more like God, or the divine nature of Christ, nor yet more like

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the harmless and undefiled body of Christ, but it did make him like the pre­ existent soul of Christ, which was exposed to agony and pain, as the head of his church, is consequence of the sin of them, in this very act of Adam, mark it well; it does not say man became like us; but like one of us. He was make like us, but has become like one of us; we might weary our readers with hundreds of scriptures to prove this plain truth such as what and if ye shall see the son of man ascend up where he was before. He that descended is the same also that ascended, I came down from heaven, neither came I of myself but the Father sent me. I proceeded and came fourth from the Father. I pray for the same glory I had with thee before the world was; he that was rich for our sakes became poor that we through his poverty might be rich. In a word all those passages which speak of Christ as laying aside his glory which he had with the Father, and coming into this world, or of being in a more impoverished condition here, than he was before the world in my opinion are incapable of any rational or scriptural explanation without it is in this way; for the Godhead never became poor, that never proceeded and came from the Father; it could be said of that, that it did not come to do its own will, but of him that sent it: neither could it be said of the flesh of Christ, that it had the same glory with the Father, before the world was, that it has since the resurrection of Christ, from the dead, that it was rich and became poor &c. But to apply all those passages to the pre­existent soul or spirit of Christ is easy, for that existed before all worlds, and was the honoured medium of operation; rejoicing always before God, rich in bliss and beautified in spotless glory, but when the time rolled on that it must assume the body prepared for it to suffer in and with; it lays aside the glory that it had, enters this world in a body of flesh, or is attended by Gabriel, to the virgins chamber, prepared to receive that body that God had prepared for it according to his promise made to Abraham, and revealed to the holy prophets, who shewed before of the coming of the just one. But now he becomes poor, soon we find him in the ox’s manger, because there was no room for them in the inn, soon his supposed father must flee his county, to save the young childs life from the merciless hands of his enemies; his visage is more marred then any of the sons of men; he is more impoverished then the foxes or the birds of the air; he gives his back to the smiter, and his cheek to them that spit upon him. On that awful, that tremendous night, the agonies of this soul (that had pre­existed all the worlds, but is now in the body that was prepared for it) was so pungeant, so insupportable, that it cause the body that it was in to sweat as it were, great drops of blood falling to the ground, and to cry my soul is exceeding sorrowful even unto death. This was poverty indeed; this was laying aside the glory he had with the Father; and thus all those scriptures are easy to him that understandeth, and right to them that find knowledge. Some may think, that I mean to convey an idea that this pre­existent soul, in assuming the body prepared for it, left the Godhead out; but if they will examine the second discourse in this work, they will be convinced that I mean no such thing. So we pass to the second thing proposed, which is to speak of his body or flesh. 142. That Christ did assume a body or flesh is certain from the following scriptures. He bear our sins in his own body on the tree. The children being partakers of flesh and blood, he also took part of the same. A spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me have, Thus we see that he had a body of flesh and bones; and it was his own body which was prepared for him; and in this body he, bare our sins; and his body also was wounded for our sins, and bruised for our transgressions, and by his stripes are we healed: and as this point is agreed to, by all the christian world, as far as we know; we shall conclude this discourse by a brief improvement of this, and the two foregoing discourses, and first: ­ we have seen that there is one and but one God, and that all the world are under obligations to worship him, if he is called the Father, we should praise him as our creator, from whom all blessings flow; if he is called the Word of God manifest in the flesh, we should worship him as such; and all our worship should be in spirit and in truth. Christian reader is not this your chief desire, and are you not saying; O for more engagedness to praise God; O for a better frame of mind, a deeper sense of my obligation to him; O for a heavenly gale to waft my affections away from earthly things; and lodge them substantially upon my God and Saviour. O that I had more light, that I could see more clearly the glory of God, in the face of Jesus, and to be transformed more into his likeness, ­ And again, secondly, we have seen, that this all creating God condescended to come in the flesh, to exhibit his unparalleled glory on earth, and to make himself known as a God merciful and gracious, long suffering and abundant in goodness and truth; forgiving transgressions, iniquity and sin. O for this, love let rocks and hills. Their lasting silence break; And all harmonious human tongues, The Saviours praises speak. 3. We have seen that God, in order to secure the eternal happiness of his church, did bring forth, set up and ordain the soul of Jesus Christ; as the great deposit of all his people, and his purposes, promises and grace; and thus all fullness of grace and spiritual blessings dwelt in him, and they (his church) were secured in him, so that after Adam fell; Christ the heir, could enter his plea for his people, and claim his legal inheritance; or the right of a legatee; and the world must be spared, until he gets his portion; thus they are the salt of the earth, and the light of the world; and in the fullness of time this heir comes forward, clothed with legal right to claim his portion, and redeem it: and as they were under the law and in the flesh, he took part of the same, and was made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law; assumed a body prepared for him, to meet the law of God in, and bare the unsheathed sword of divine justice, and tread the wine press of the fierceness of the wrath of Almighty God. Thus we see the eternal wisdom of God concerted the mysteriously glorious plan of salvation, in Christ before the world began; and so connected the highest display of his glory, with the salvation of the church; that the display of the one, effected the other: so that when the soul of

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Christ appears in the body of Christ, and the whole Godhead dwells in him, the inumerable number of the heavenly host is heard, saying, glory to God in the highest, on earth peace and good will toward men. Shall the angels cause their notes to swell so as to be heard on earth when they see that the exhibition of the glory of God is connected with peace on earth and good will toward men? And shall we, my brethren, shall we not feel our souls inflamed with love, and fired with zeal, to glorify God in our bodies and spirits which are his? Come dearest Lord descend and dwell, By faith and love in every breast; Then shall we know and taste and feel, The joys that cannot be exprest. Come fill our hearts with inward strength, Make our enlarged souls possess; And learn the height and depth and length, Of thine unmeasureable grace.

DISCOURSE IV.

On the Covenant of Redemption This subject has long been a bone of contention amongst divines, the Armenian authors have generally been on the negative side and the Calvinists on the affirmative, the former confusing the system of grace, and leaving all to uncertainty to turn upon conditions to be performed by the creature, and the latter confusing the deity into three distinct persons, the one hireing the other do the work of redemption, and promising to reward him for his trouble: so the bargain is made, or the covenant contract, and compact entered into; and the trading parties in the Godhead strike hands and close their bargain. O truth how art thou abused; how hast thy glory been beclouded by the cunning craftiness of men, whereby they lie in wait to deceive. O error, thou art on every side of truth, with thy bewildering craftsmen, to bewitch the people with sorcery on the one side, or to attempt to buy the Holy Ghost with money (or works) on the other; so we may say strait is the gate, and narrow is the way that leads to life and few there be that find it. O Lord help the writer and the reader, to mark thy steps, and keep the road! In treating on this covenant we shall attempt; first, to show what we do not believe, and secondly. – To show what we do believe. 1. We do not believe that there ever was a contract made between the Father and the Son, or the first and second persons in the trinity; for as we have clearly shown in the second discourse of this work, there were no such persons in the Godhead; or thirding out in the Deity; but if it must be thought that there was such a covenant or bargain made; and if two of the three persons in the Godhead made the bargain; then if ever the second person fulfilled his part of the contract he must have died, then one third of the Godhead was dead, and the other two­thirds clear of pain; one third is making satisfaction; another

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third receiving satisfaction; and another third pleased to look at the two bargaining thirds, fulfilling their contract with each other. O shocking tradition, how long will thou exalt thyself, how long ere thou shalt return to the mother of harlots, from whence thou hast sprung, and with all her other base begotten offsprings be destroyed with the spirit of the Lords mouth and consumed with the brightness of his coming. Again the idea of a covenant under the notion of a bargain made between the Father and the Son, or the divine nature of Christ pre­supposes that God did not from eternity know, what would be the terms upon which man should be redeemed; or else if the Father knew, the divine nature of Christ was not knowing to it: or otherwise if it was known to both Father and Son; or if God the first contracting party, knew that God the second contracting party, would bargain with him, and come into this world and die for man; yet this was no way obligatory on the one, or the other before the bargain was made; or else the party or parties already bound could not be at liberty either to propose or object to any part of the covenant; so our expositors of the covenant generally tell us that the Father and the Son was each independent of the other, that they were under no prior obligations to each other; but that after man fell by transgression; the Father proposed to the Son, if he would come into the world and die for rebellious man, that he would reward him well for his trouble: the Son after making his reply, at length agrees to the terms, and the covenant is made; the bargain prosecuted, and the parties strike hands and bind themselves to each other; does this look like having but one God? when there are two so distinct as to bargain with each other, and one die to fulfill his part of the covenant; and the other reward him for his services. But if you will read Boston’s view of the covenant you will see much of this sort of language, and I never have seen any author on the covenant, that holds the divine nature of the Son to be one of the contracting parties; but what have unavoidably fallen into those inconsistencies; some of them, seeing that this was untenable ground, have endeavoured to remedy it, by telling us that it was not the divine nature of Christ that made this bargain; but the pre­existing soul of Christ was the second contracting party, this indeed looks more reasonable, for this could be done without dividing the Godhead, or punishing the divine nature of Christ. But this was not equal to the Father, considered as being distinct from the divine nature, and therefore was not upon equal footing to make such a covenant; for it was God’s servant must do his will, is already bound as the head of his church, and therefore can have no part in making such a covenant. Seeing the difficulties that must inevitably follow in establishing such a contract and finding that there is not one text in the bible to prove, nor favour the idea of such a bargain or contract, as this; I believe that this contract was more likely made between antichrist and the Pope of Rome, than between two distinct persons in the trinity: our writers inform us that this was an eternal contract, that is a contradiction in terms, for it is the same as to say, a contract that never was made; or a contract that never was a contract, but others fix a date to this contract or bargain, and say it was made soon after the fall of man, then it was not eternal but was made in time, that it was invented in time, I believe, but that the

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persons of the trinity invented it I do not believe, for I believe it to be the invention of man, and no more than human tradition. Although the reformers made a valuable leap from the chaos of error, yet who will say that they brought no errors with them; we are convinced that their errors were not a few, nor could we have expected them to have been less than they were, except they had been infallible men, but we have a more sure word of prophesy, to which we would do well to give heed, again our writers on this bargain tell us that the covenants made with the Father, viz. Adam, Noah, Abraham, David, Moses and others, were figures of the covenant of grace made between the Father and the Son, then we will briefly notice those covenants, and we shall clearly see that the idea of a bargain is entirely excluded from all those covenants. 1. The covenant (as some call it) made with Adam, we have recorded Gen. 2. 16. 17. – And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat; but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Now is there any thing in this, that looks like a bargain between two contracting parties, or is it not a law given to Adam, without asking him one question on the subject, or Adam ever saying one word pro. or con. But God as a sovereign gives this law to Adam as his subject; first tells him what he may do; of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: secondly, what he may not do; but not eat of it. Thirdly, the penalty is annexed; for in the day that thou shalt eat of it, thou shalt sure die. Thus we see that the idea of a bargain is entirely excluded from this covenant, or rather this law, for a law it is in all its features; and if it is a figure of the covenant of grace or redemption; then that covenant was not a bargain between two contracting parties. 2. The covenant with Noah we have recorded Gen. 9th. Chapter, from the first to the eighteenth verse; the first seven verses, inform us that God blessed Noah and his sons, telling them what they might do in multiplying and replenishing the earth, that their fear should be upon the beasts; forbids the shedding of mans blood, and tells them to be fruitful: from the 8th. To the 18th. we learn that God spake unto Noah, and to his sons, saying, I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you; and with every living creature that is with you of the fowl; of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth: he then tells them that the bow shall be in the cloud for a token of his covenant which he had established between him and all flesh that is upon the earth. – Now Noah, his sons, or any of the beasts, had not one word to say in this covenant; nothing favouring the notion of a contract between two contracting parties, is found in it: but it evidently is nothing more nor less then an exhibition of God’s determination, never to destroy the earth with a flood of water; then if this was a figure of the covenant of redemption, the notion of a contract between two contracting parties is altogether defeated, and not even the shadow of any such bargain to be found in this covenant with Noah. 3. The covenant with Abraham is recorded Gen. 13. 1. 2. 3. Now the Lord had said unto Abram, get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and

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from thy father’s house unto a land that I will shew thee; and I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: and I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed. Here again Abram is as silent as was Adam and Noah; we hear him say not one word in the case: then the idea of a bargain is lost from this covenant also. – The covenant of circumcision with Abram, was 24 years afterwards, when he was ninety­nine years old; and is recorded, Gen. 17th. Chapter. – First, the Lord declares his sovereignty, saying, I am the Almighty God. – Secondly, commands him how to walk before him. – Thirdly, tells him what the covenant is, how it was to be observed, and what was the token of it. – Fourthly, what the penalties are if he does not keep it; and what the blessings of the covenant were; but, Abraham so far from being a party contracting in this covenant, that, so soon as God spoke to him, and told him, that he would make his covenant between them; Abram fell on his face to hear; not to bargain, and God declared to him what the covenant was; and when Abram found that it respected his seed through Sarah; he speaks, not like a party contracting; but like a humble suppliant, saying; O that Ishmael might live before the Lord. – So we clearly see that if this was a figure of the covenant of redemption the notion of a contract or bargain is not found in it. 4. The covenant made with David is recorded, 2d, Samuel 7th. And David calls it a covenant made with him, see Psalm, 89. 3. 4. I have made a covenant with my chosen; I have sworn unto David my servant, thy seed will I establish for ever, and build up thy throne to all generations: those two verses comprehend the whole sum of the covenant contained in the 7th. Chapter of 2d. Samuel; and David is so far from being a contracting party in this covenant, that the word of the Lord came unto Nathan respecting this covenant, and Nathan told it to David; so this covenant like the others; if a figure of the covenant of redemption, disproves the idea of a bargain made by two contracting parties. 5. We shall now examine the covenant with Moses, recorded in Exod. 19th. & 20th. chapters, and repeated by Moses to all Israel, Deut. 5th. chap. But Moses is no party contractor, but when all was done according to Gods commandments; Moses calls it the covenant which God hath enjoined unto you this day: then it was God’s injunction on Israel, sent to them by the hand of Moses, and not a contract made between two equal parties. So we clearly see that if all, or either of those covenants be figures of the covenant of redemption, the idea of two contracting parties making a bargain is entirely excluded by those figures. Thus we have briefly shewn, what we do not believe respecting this covenant of redemption. Secondly, we shall now proceed to shew what we do believe respecting this covenant; and in order to be plain on this subject, we shall attempt to get the proper meaning of the word covenant, before we proceed any farther; and for this we refer the reader to Mr. Campbell’s debate, in the appendix page 157., the author tells us, the words berith, in the Hebrew language; diatheke, in the

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Greek; foedus in the Latin; and covenant in the English, all represent the same idea. Then he proceeds to give us the signification of each of those words and says, berith primarily signifies a purification sacrifice, a choosing, or friendly parting; and is the word uniformly used in the old testament for covenant; diatheke signifies a dispensation, appointment, testament, covenant or dispensation, and is translated into the Latin by foedus testamentum dispositio: covenant signifies from its etymology, to come together to agree; or a coming together, an agreement: because sacrifice and a friendly parting were the circumstances of covenant transactions, berith became metaphorically a suitable name for such transactions. And because there was something appointed, dispensed, guaranteed or established in such interviews. Diatheke became a proper expression of the transaction; and because the parties agreed and parted in a friendly manner, the term covenant became a suitable name for it, because of its being the usual name for the will, disposition, or arrangement of the testators effects, which is rendered valid by his death. The term dispensation, so much in use; is also a very suitable term says Parkhurst; and with him I perfectly agree, for a constitution or dispensation is as expressive of the received sense of the term diatheke, as any word in our language. Mr. Campbell informs us, that Mr. Brown’s diffinition of a covenant is not correctly true as applied to the divine covenants; a covenant saith (Mr. Brown) is an agreement between different parties on certain terms. This is that erroneous opinion saith Mr. Campbell, which Mr. Parkhurst in his Dictionary mentions under the word diatheke; that has built upon, rendering this word covenant so general; as if polluted guilty man could covenant or contract with God, for his salvation, or had any thing else to do in this matter, but humbly to submit and except of God’s dispensation of purification and salvation through the all atoning sacrifice of the real berith or purifier Jesus Christ. Thus we have seen that the origin and diffinition of the word covenant does not necessarily imply a bargain between two contracting parties, but does properly mean, a choosing, disposition, appointment, testament, &c. This definition agrees with the manner in which the word covenant is used in the scriptures as we have seen in the first head of this discourse, thus the covenant with Adam was Gods appointment to him, I call this a covenant after the common custom of writers, but I do not think it is called so in the scripture. So the covenant with Noah was a sovereign act of God alone originating in himself and the appointment made known to Noah as the Father of the world. The covenants with Abraham were also the disposition of God, made known to him at different times, and respecting different things. – 1. the covenant confirme of God in Christ, was Gods appointment; with respect to Christs being born of Abrahams line and made known to Abraham four hundred and thirty years before the giving of the law, when Abraham was about seventy­five years old. The covenant of circumcision was given to Abraham about twenty­five or thirty years afterwards, when Abraham was about an hundred years old; and was designed to distinguish Abrahams family; until the first covenant should be fulfilled; that is God having appointed Abrahams family as the one in which Christ should be born; afterwards

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appoints circumcision as a mark to distinguish that family from all others, until he was born; thus the covenants with Abraham were Gods purposes or appointments made known to him. So also the covenant with Moses was Gods appointment, or the law for the government of Israel made know to Moses; and by him forwarded to the nation of the circumcised in order to organize them still further, and to distinguish them, to them about four hundred and thirty years after the promise, called the covenant confirmed of God in Christ was made known to Abraham, and about four hundred years after the covenant with David was also an appointment of God, with respect to the throne of David being established, and his seed to set on it, and build a house for the Lord: And so are all the covenants in scripture where God is said to have made the covenant, plainly an appointment or dispensation, which he gave to the people. So we see the law: the gospel, and the work of regeneration, &c. are all called covenants because they are all Gods sovereign appointments and purposes, which he purposed in himself and makes known to his creatures as he pleases. Thus we have seen the meaning of the word covenant, as given by Mr. Campbell and Parkhurst, and that the covenants mentioned in scripture agree with the definition which we have given of the word. So that if we should agree with the great transaction of God respecting the salvation of his people was handed down to us under the word covenant; the idea of a contract between two contracting parties is not necessarily implied in it: or if we should grant to our writers on this contract what they ask for, that is, that the covenant with Noah, Abraham, &c. were figures of the covenant of redemption; even then the idea of a contract is excluded from it: but there is not one text in all the bible; that calls the appointment or counsel of God, respecting the salvation of the church by the same covenant, the dispensation of the gospel is called by this name, but the eternal counsel of God in our election, is never called in scripture a covenant, but is called his determinate counsel and foreknowledge, which he purposed in Christ before the world was, great and precious promises given us in Christ before the foundation of the world, &c. The Baptists have always thought and that justly too; that they had a right to victory over all the pedoe­Baptists, in the case of baptism, because the latter were never able to shew one text to authorize their practice; then we have the same right to victory in this case; for the contenders for a covenant made between the Father and the Son, before the world was, have never been able to shew one text to authorize them to call that act of God a covenant, and never will, until peodoe­ Baptists find one to authorize them to call sprinkling baptism. And not wishing to be wise above what is written, we will drop the word covenant and content ourselves with the words of the Holy Ghosts selecting, and attempt to show what we do believe, concerning the redemption of the church; we do not refuse to use or accept of the word covenant, because it does not suit our scheme, for as we have seen already, the word covenant excludes the idea of a contract between two­contracting parties; and when properly understood answers us as well as any other word, but when we read of our standing in Christ before the world, the word covenant is not once used to express it by: but the words chosen us in Christ before the world, according to his eternal purpose and

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grace which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world, &c. These and similar words, are used by the Holy Ghost, and as we have seen how greatly the truth has been abused by substituting the word covenant, and then construing it under the notion of a contract, we think it for the better to use scripture language on all those occasions and flee from every appearance of evil, which the substitution of the word covenant opened a door for the enemy, to introduce amongst us; but when we come to the Bible as inquirers after truth we do not meet with bewildering accounts of contracting persona in the Godhead, and of a bargain being made between two of them, before the world began, and so have our minds confused worse than before; but we come and receive the simple plain truth concerning the interest we have in the grace of God, and when we read that he hath not appointed us unto wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ, that the people of God are elect according to the foreknowledge of God, &c. we are at once (if we give credit to the Bible) convinced of election, and are made to drink into the same spirit with Paul, and say blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ Jesus, according as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world. Thus we have shewn what we do not believe concerning the covenant of redemption, that we do not believe that it was a contract between two persons in the Godhead, nor between the Father and the human soul of Christ, nor any thing like a bargain at all, and have also assigned our reasons for not believing so: and secondly, we have shewn that the word covenant means a will or testament, an appointment, disposition or dispensation, and have compared this diffinition with the word as used in scripture which proves our diffinition to be correct, so that if the word covenant is retained, yet the idea of a bargain is entirely excluded from it. Again we have hinted at the evils which have been introduced amongst us by calling the purpose of God in our election a covenant, and then explaining a covenant to mean a contract and then dividing the Godhead into three persons in order to get the contracting parties in the covenant. Those things being very far from innocent, and as far from truth, and only calculated to perplex the mind of the inquirer after thru, we therefore think best to drop the word covenant when we are conversing of things before the world, seeing the Holy Ghost hath never used it in that place, and thus we have hinted at God’s eternal purpose in the election of his church in Christ before all worlds; and as we purpose to treat more particularly on this subject in the next discourse we shall close the present by giving a few words of advise on reading the scripture. Christian brethren we live in a land of plenty, and under a government that allows us the privilege of free investigation, but have we not cause to mourn when we find that our minds are so powerfully biased by tradition that we so often read the scripture in order to find something to strengthen our prejudices rather than remove them, but could we once lay aside all our prepossessions and come to the scriptures to learn of God what we must believe, and how we should serve him acceptably. May this be the happy lot of the writer and reader 22

of this little book; we should endeavor to come as dependent on the Bible for instruction as we are on God for salvation, and remember that error gets more powerful in old age, but never gets any better, and where it has been long entertained by great and good men, it becomes ingenious enough to hold them up to view, and say see what a train of good men have entertained me; I must be good or they would not have had me with them, for sure they knew much more than you do, thus error imposes upon us and tries to prevent us from believing for ourselves, and persuade us to pin our faith to other mens sleves, and it may have been whispering in your ears some of the those things, since you have been reading this discourse on the covenant, for it does not feel willing to give up the ghost, and have no more of an honorable burying than an unlearned and unpopular phamphlet, while so many learned and popular volumes stand ready to prolong its life and embalm its body: but if we would know the truth; we should know that the word of God is true, and every man a liar, and if they depart from the Bible, we are guilty if we follow them, or if they teach for doctrine the traditions of men we should search the scriptures daily to see whether these things be so. Thus may we all come for instruction to the good word of God, and by it under the influence of the holy spirit be made wise unto salvation, to know God and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent whom to know is life eternal.

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DISCOURSE V.

On the Atonement, and Man’s Justification by it. The doctrine of atonement has been as much abused by men, as any point or subject that ever was delivered to man from the scriptures of truth: but as we do not aim at controversy, we shall simply attempt to show what we understand by the atonement, and who are interested in it; and in order to do this we shall persue the following method. First, show what we understand by the atonement. Secondly, who are interested in it. And thirdly, how their justification is affected by it. 1. We are to show what we understand by the atonement; the word atone according to Walker, means to agree, to answer for, to expiate, satisfy, appease. Atonement signifies agreement concord, expiation, satisfaction, thus the atonement performed by Christ, was his answering for us, and making satisfaction, and thereby expiating our guilt, by atoning for our crimes: to this diffinition of the word, the scripture most cordially agrees: see 1. Cor. 5. 7. Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 1. Peter 3. 18. For Christ hath once suffered for sons, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God. Romans 5. 10. 11. For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. And not only so, but we also joy in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement. Thus we see that the apostle understood the word as we do; but although all agree in the meaning of the word, yet there is a very great difference in the manner of illustrating this doctrine; and great division of sentiment, and a very material difference in understanding it; insomuch that one author tells us, that the atonement means reconciliation; and that reconciliation is effected, not by Christ dying to make satisfaction for our sins, nor bearing the penalty of the law as our representative; but by the power of sympathy, or by our reflecting on his sufferings, as an example for us to follow, we become reconciled to God, and so what we call the new birth, he calls the atonement: See Stones Second Address. Others say the atonement is Christs procuring or purchasing, some easy terms of salvation for us, and also purchasing all our blessings, both command special, and that by dying for original sin, he removed original guilt and placed mankind, in a state of probation, with power to fulfill certain conditions, and thereby secure their salvation; or reject those terms and be lost. Others tell us that both of these are wrong, for the atonement is Christ dying to pacify the Father, and by sprinkling his rich blood upon the burning throne, calmed the Fathers frowning face and turned the wrath to grace, and reconciled the father to the elect, and procured all temporal blessings for the none elect; thus while they are disputing on this subject, Mr. Fuller in his gospel its own Witness, undertakes to reconcile the disputants by informing us that the atonement was effected by Christs bearing a partial punishment for sin; not so as to fulfil the letter of the law, but to preserve the spirit of it, so far that the malignity of sin might be exposed, and God might forgive it, without appearing to act contrary to moral government; but still we have to think for

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ourselves, and differ very much from all those good men; for we believe, that the work of atonement was effected, not by Christs appearing to do what he did not do; that is appearing to fulfil the law; and not fulfiling it, according to Mr. Fuller, but by fulfiling to a jot and title, magnifying and making it honourable; not by purchasing blessings temporal or spiritual for us, but by dying for our sins according to the scriptures; not to affect our tender passions with human sympathy according to Mr. Stone, but to remove the curse being made a curse for us. Not to change the disposition of the Father towards us, by turning his wrath to grace, but by bearing our sins in his own body in the tree: Not to purchase some easy terms of salvation for us, and place us in a state of probation, but to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself; not original sin only but of many offences, unto justification of life; not a partial or conditional justification, but justifying us from all things from which we could not be justifyed by the law of Moses. Thus the atonement of Christ evendently is his suffering all that punishment which our sins, both original and practical did or could demerit, and thereby satisfying the just penalty of Gods law which we had violated, and by being wounded for our sins, and bruised for our transgressions, the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and thus the righteous servant of God justified many be bearing their iniquity. The atonement did not purchase any spiritual blessings for the elect of God, for he that spared not his own son but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him freely give us all things; neither did the atonement purchase the favour, grace or love of God; but was the strongest evidence, that he had given us grace in Christ before the foundation of the world, neither did the atonement purchase heaven for us but acquited the church from all condemnation, so that after regeneration they shall inherit the kingdom prepared for them before the foundation of the world: neither did the atonement make God love the church, but was the greatest commendation of the love of God, for greater love hath no man then this, that a man should lay down his life for his friend, but God commendeth his love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us. Neither did the atonement purchase any temporal blessings for the world; for the earth and the fullness of it is the Lord’s, and he gives or withholds as he pleases. He sends rain on the just and the unjust, as his favours bestowed to the world in creation; not as favours purchased by the atonement; neither did the atonement purchase the gifts or graces of the spirit, but freed the church from under the ministration of condemnation and death, and placed them under grace, and thus prepared the way for the spirit of grace to bestow its gifts and graces upon them, which it could not have done, while they were under the curse; without rendering them as miserable as Adam must have been if he had have eaten of the tree of life, after he had become guilty by eating of the tree of knowledge. Neither did the atonement purchase any thing for the world or the church either temporal, spiritual or eternal: but he purchased the church by his own blood; not that he purchased the church from the Father, but purchased it, or redeemed it from under the law, by his blood which answered every penal demand that the law could have against it; and by thus paying to the law its full price or demand,

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they (his people) are no more under the law, but under grace. Thus we have shewn what we understand by the atonement; and shall proceed to shown in the second place, who are interested in the atonement. 2. Those and only those are interested in the atonement that were united to Christ, before all worlds, for the atonement could effect none else; for justice would not allow of Christs suffering for sin, without union to the sinner; nor could we be justified by the blood of Christ without union with him, but as this union is disputed by many good men, and we think mostly on account of not understanding it. I shall endeavour to treat on this subject as plain as possible, and shew the indispensable necessity of such union in order to our being interested in the atonement by Jesus Christ; or being saved by him, upon the principles of equity. My present design is to render with as much plainness of speech as possible, the reason of my ideas intending thereby to prove at once the necessity and utility of this union; all our hopes of salvation are built upon this assertion, God is good; and that we may rightly conceive of him as being good; it is as necessary to see him justice, holiness, and truth, as mercy and love; for all those is necessary to meet in one, to constitute real goodness, but where is the justice of laying our sins on Christ if we were not so united to him, as to make it just. I am sure no one would call that judge either just, or good, that would place the crime of the guilty, to the account of the innocent; and punish him for it; but it hath pleased the Lord to lay the iniquity of us all on him, and he was wounded for our sins, and bruised for our transgressions; but is there any more justice in wounding Christ for our sins without union, than there would be in hanging one man, because another had committed murder? but if Christ and those for whom he suffered, was united as head and members; then the justice of the act does clearly appear, when the head of the body suffers with and for his members, then we cannot conceive of God as being good nor just in the imputation of our sins to Christ, without the consideration of union, if we call God holy, and yet say that he punished his own beloved son, for crimes that he never had done, nor was in any sense united to those that had committed them; must we not of course think them holy men that sacrifice their innocent sons to molock? If Christ died for our sins and was not united to us, it was contrary to truth, which declares that they are bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh, then the truth stands unimpeached, for he and them make but one; he the head and they the members. Thus we see the necessity of union between Christ and those for whom he made atonement. Again, if Christ had volunteered himself to die for us, it could not have done us any good without union because it would not have done us any good without union because it would not have removed our guilt, any more, then an innocent person’s being hanged unjustly would remove the guilt of the highway robber. If I am guilty of a capital crime, I remain guilty, if all the innocent men in the state of Ohio should volunteer to suffer in my stead, then if Christ died that God might be just in justifying; he must have been united to the church, before he suffered for them; or else the act of punishing Christ for their sins, is so far from having any appearance of justice in it; that was an

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earthly king to be guilty of such an act with his son, it would almost cause the blood to run cold in our veins, and every heart would rise up against the cruel act of the unequaled tyrant in human shape. But ought we not to feel a double shock when we hear men trying to place this crime to God’s account; O my soul come thou not into this awful dilemma. The christian world in general is willing to agree, that Christ and his people are united after faith, but not before; then it becomes our duty to examine when this union took place; and what the cementing bond of this union is. First, we sill examine if faith is this bond of union. Secondly, If Gods breathing into man the breath of life is this union; and Thirdly, attempt to shew what this bond is, and hint at is antiquity and strength; and shew how it clothed Christ with the right to make an atonement. 1. We are now to examine if faith is this bond of union; faith is a grace of the spirit that has to do with that union; but so far from being the bond or cement of it, that if we were not united before faith acted, it could never act; for it is an evidence of things not seen; but it could not be an evidence of union with Christ, unless such union had existed previous to the evidence of faith; an evidence is that which witnesses to a fact, but it never can create a fact, but the fact must first be a fact, and then the evidence can bear testimony to that fact; so by faith we know the world was made; that is, by the evidence of faith we know it. Whether faith is considered as retrospective or prospective it acts on facts; if it evidences that there is a heaven, it is a fact, and was so long before faith could have given an evidence of it. So respecting this union, faith is an evidence of it, but it must have been a fact before faith could be an evidence of it; and thus if ever faith is spoken of in scripture as having any thing to do in this union it is because it apprehends it, and bears witness of it. Again faith has no uniting quality in it, but simply evidences to the truth; and is therefore called a belief of the truth; but if it has any uniting quality in it, it must unite us as much to bad men, as to good ones; as much to the world as to saints; and as much to the devil as to God; for it bears evidence to the truth of the one as certainly as to the other; and is a belief of the one, as much as of the other; so it is our happiness that faith cannot unit us to any thing but can apprehend union where it is; and division where it is. Thus we have seen that faith is not, nor cannot be the bond of union. 2. We are to inquire if Gods breathing into man the breath of life is the bond of union between Christ and his church: although this is much more reasonable than the other, yet this is equally false; for we find this union existed before creation, for in thy book all my members were written, then they were united with him as members, and their names written in the lambs book of life slain from the foundation of the world. 3. We shall now hasten to show what this bond of union is, & hint its antiquity and strength; and show how it clothed Christ with the right to make the atonement. – The bond of union between Christ and his church is love; and this cementing bond unites the church to both the human and divine nature of

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Christ, or the pre­existing soul of Christ and God in it; for God says yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love, and Christ says, thou hast loved them as thou hast loved me, and thou lovest me before the world was, but this uniting bond not only existed between God and his people, but between the soul of Christ and the church, for he loved the church, and gave himself for it; love is very dissimilar to faith; first, it has an uniting quality in it; it unites husband and wife, it never can be without union, for union is its very nature; it is that uniting bond that cements together all that it encloses; secondly, it differs from faith, for when faith evidences the truth of the being of wicked men and devils, love does not unite us to them because God is love and if God is love we are lost when we go to hint the antiquity of this union; we can only say it is as old as God, for God is love; but love must have an object or it ceases to be; for I cannot love, and love nothing; love is that endearing or uniting perfection of God, which could only exist, so long as the object beloved existed; nor could God be love before the object was beloved, neither can love be controlled, for it brings forth, produces, or sets up its own object, that is, must necessarily have an object, in order to is own existence; and as God is self­existent and independent, his existence as love, brought forth its object, which was the soul of Christ will all his people in it, and the very existence of God as king could only be because he had subjects for a king without a kingdom, is no king at all; so love without an object is no love at all. So we see that in order to our speaking of God as being love, or his existing as love, there must be an object beloved, and in order to his being a king there must be subjects, and thus the pre­existent soul of Christ, was the object of the love of God and his people in it were the subjects of his kingdom, and Christ was the medium of operation through whom God exercises his authority in the government of his kingdom; for in the pre­existing soul of Christ, the subjects of this kingdom were chosen, before the world, when we speak or read of a choice being made in Christ before the world, we re not to understand, that God was looking through Adams posterity, and picking out one here, and another there, and writing their names in the book of life, and refusing the rest, for they were chosen in Christ before the world and not in Adam; for he did not exist before creation; and the choice was not an act that took place, or was planed some time after the existence of God, either before the world or since, but was a consequence of, and inseparable from the existence of God as king, and this kingdom was organized in the pre­existent soul of Christ; in whom all blessings, purposes, promises and grace of God were given them, or in whom the whole design of God toward them was expressed and all this not by an act of God, but as a thing inseparable from the being of God, under the name love, mercy, king, sovereign, lord or any other name he bears, in which his superiority is implied, thus you see, that our union to God, or the divine nature of Christ is a consequence of God’s being love, and while God remains to be love our union must of necessity continue, without any addition or dimunition, unless God increases or diminishes. And our being chosen in Christ is a consequence of Gods being a king, and our being interested in those blessings and graces in Christ, is a consequence of the nature and design of God, which never can be

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seperated from him, unless he becomes dispossessed of his nature. This is the nature of our union with Christ, and this the bond of it, and to this agrees the scripture of truth. And thus we see all the elect of God were chosen and blest, with all spiritual blessings in Christ, and thus the human soul of Christ was pregnant with all the subject, blessings, & graces, of Gods kingdom; and as the only active representative, it acts for them all, having them all in it. Thus the union between Christ and his church is taught in the scripture, I in them, and thou in me; We are members of his body of his flesh and of his bones; whether on member suffer all the members suffer with it; for as the body is one and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body, so also is Christ. Ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular; He is the head of the body the church: the head over all things to his church; which is his body, the fullness of him that filleth al in all. Ye are complete in him; we being many are one body in Christ, and members one of another. For: both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one. We think if unnecessary to repeat any more scripture here, for the above texts are a specimen of the Bible on this subject; so we have seen what the bond of union is; and have hinted the antiquity and strength of it, and shall now shew how it clothes Christ with the right of making the atonement, we have seen the necessity of this union with God, in the pre­existent soul of Christ brought forth and set up, as the certain effect of the being of God under the idea, of love or the authority of a king, or of God under either of those characters; and so Christ existed then as properly the head of the church, or kingdom of God, while they were all in him, as Adam did exist head of the human family when they all were in him. And as the creation of Adam gave him the right to represent his posterity in Eden before God, because they were naturally related to him; being united in him; so Christ had the right of representing his posterity, by virtue of union with them which as a consequence of God’s existence, and ever since God a king his people or subjects were his portion; and ever since God was love, Christ with his church in him, was set up as the object of that love, and ever since the Lord was God, that holy nation, whose God the Lord is, and the people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritence have been blessed. Now we have seen that according to the nature and constitution of things, Christ was always united to his church as their head and representative, and thus he has the right of making the atonement for them, and they can be benefited by it; in this way the just of God appears, in the imputation of Christ righteousness to the church, just in the same point of view that Adams sin or guilt, was imputed or entailed to his posterity. So Gods independent existence, consequently brought forth his own medium of operation, for the government of his kingdom, clothed Christ with the right of redemption; and in him our happiness was inseparably connected with an exhibition of the glory of God, so that the highest display of his glory is in effecting our happiness; thus all the works of God in creation and providence, as well as in grace, are for the accomplishment of his purposes in displaying his glory in the government of his kingdom, and the whole gospel, is only an exhibition of his eternal design or purpose; thus the very being of God 29

secures the church in Christ; in whom they must always remain while God remains a king, for they are his subjects; and the human soul of Christ is their representative, in whom the whole platform of government is treasured and in whom God is prepared to make every display of himself, that he ever designed to make. So when God displayed his power in creating a world, it was by Jesus Christ; when he displayed his glory in redemption, it was by the same Christ; & when he shall display his glory in judging the world in righteousness it will be by the same Jesus Christ; and in a word, all we do know, or ever shall know of God, is in and by Jesus Christ; and as creation was a work of God, preparatory to the display of his glory; the earth became of course the theatre upon which the display should be made; and as the church or kingdom of God was the object of that display, it naturally required that Adam as a figure, of him, by whom that great display should be made, should be the highest part of creation. And as the display of Gods glory, was to be made by Christ, who contained all his people in him; it was proper that all the posterity of the figure should be contained in him; and as all the spiritual blessings of Gods kingdom were in Christ, so all the temporal blessings of the world must be in the figure, and as the whole rule of the government of his kingdom was in Christ; so the whole rule of the government of the world must be in the figure: thus Adam was a figure of him that was to come; for he was the most exalted part of the creation, had all his posterity in him, so all temporal blessings were his; of all the trees of the garden thou mayest freely eat; and the rule that should govern the world was contained in the law given to Adam and all the human family in him, but afterwards when the woman was seperated from the man in person, but remaining bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh, she was deceived and was in the transgression, and gave to her husband, and he not being deceived willingly partook of it, knowing the consequence that would follow; and as the woman united to him, bone of his bone and flesh, of his flesh, had eaten of the forbidden fruit, he must eat or be seperated from her and so he did eat. What a beautiful figure is Adam of Christ, Adam was created with the woman in him; ­ Adam was the head of the woman; ­ Christ was the head of the church. Adam had the law & temporal blessings of the woman given to her in him: Christ had the law of love and all the spiritual blessings of the church, given to the church in him. – Adam received the forbidden fruit from the woman after she had eaten: ­ Christ received the consequence of the transgression of the church after they had sinned. – Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. Adam loved his wife and said for this cause shall a man leave his father and mother and shall cleave to his wife and they two shall be one flesh: Christ loved the church and gave himself for it, which was bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. Thus the head of the woman is the man and the head of the church is Christ. And here in creation we have a beautiful figure of the union between Christ and the church; which gives him the right of redemption; and shows the justice of our sins being laid on Christ. Again when God makes a display of his glory in giving the law we see a plain figure of the relationship in the case of redemption; if one of the Hebrews became poor and

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was sold; a kinsman was allowed to have the right of redemption. And in the fullness of time when God makes that great display of himself; which all the other displays were preparatory too; the substance of the figures in the former displays comes forward, with the glory of God shining in his face, and the whole Godhead dwelling in him bodily; publishes the eternal counsel or disposition of God, declares himself united to them as their head and husband, and acts the part of a kinsman in redemption. Thus we have seen that the union between Christ and his church clothed him with the right to make the atonement; and now we shall show how their justification is effected by the atonement of Christ. Justification is a law term, and is the reverse of condemnation; to justify is to declare one to be just, or innocent; thus God justifies the church. Legal justification can only take place where there is no guilt or lawful charge to condemn; and thus God justifies because Christ has died; that is Christ has put away sin by the sacrifice of himself, who was the head of the church, and thereby clears them as his members from guilt; and thus God is just when he justifies them, and in the very same sense the church was justified, for their sins were placed to Christs account as their head and representative and thus he was as a lamb slain from the foundation of the world, ever since Christ was brought fourth the head and representative of his church, he has been accountable as such to God for all the acts of those he did represent, and though their sins could not stain him with impurity, yet as he is their head and they in him, their sins must be charged to him, and the punishment due to their sins must be inflicted on him. Therefore the sword of justice must slumber until the head of the church comes to satisfy its demands, and then awake against him, instead of the sheep; for all we like sheep have gone astray we have every one turned into our own way; but the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all, and in the very same sense that Christ was accountable for the church; the church was justified in him. But when Christ came into this world to make the atonement, he came with his people in him, as they always had been, and in this sense they may be said to suffer in him, to die in him, to rise in him and to be glorified in him, and to have their seats in heavenly places in him, for as he is, so are we in him; for whether one of the members suffer, all the members suffer with it, or whether one member be honored all the members rejoice with it. Thus we have seen that the nature and being of God hath joined Christ and his church together, and let no man attempt to put them asunder, but thus united they stand, and Christ as their head is constitutionally the only one that can make the atonement, and he can atone for none but such as are constitutionally the members of his body, or Gods kingdom, nor will justice allow of one other sin being laid to his charge, nor of one of the sins of his people being laid to the charge of any other but him; thus there is an indispensable necessity for Christ to make the atonement, and all his members were in him when he did make the atonement, and his dying is the same by virtue of this union, as if they all had died; for the love of Christ constraineth us, because we thus judge that if one died for all, then were all dead; & that he died for all, that henceforth we

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that live, should not live unto ourselves, but unto him that died for us, and rose again. Thus we have become dead to the law by the body of Christ, crucified with Christ: thus Christs being united to the church as their head and dying as such; they in him have been represented in death, under the penalty of the law, and in him every charge of the law is fulfiled completely; and they are as clear from guilt in him, as if they never had committed one sin, and are justified by the atoning blood of Christ: for justice demands their justification; and who can lay any thing to the charge of Gods elect? for it is God that justifieith; who is he that condemneth? it is Christ that died. Thus we see that Christs dying for the elect clears them from every possible charge so that no one can condemn, for God who cannot look on sin with any degree of allowance justifies them freely from all things not in part only but from all things from which they could not be justified by the law of Moses. Thus the atonement completely justified the whole elect church or kingdom of God which was in Christ, when the atonement was made, and so when he died for us according to the scriptures and we in him; he never could have arisen from the dead while one sin stood charged to him on our account, or against the church in him but he having (by the atonement) obtained for us the forgivness (or discharge) of all our sins, he rises again from the dead, with his church in him as saith the scriptures, thy dead body shall live, my dead body shall arise after two days will he revive us; in the third he will raise us up and we shall live in his sight. Thus as our justification was completed by Christ; dying for our sins; so our justification is demonstrated by the resurrection of Christ from the dead, and so it is said, he died for our sins and rose again for our justification. And so Christ ascends to heaven with all his people in him, as completely clear of sin, as they were before sin entered the world, so we see that justification is a consequence of the atonement, and the atonement could only justify the church, for none others were united to him; but they by virtue of union with Christ, are justified, as truly justified by his fulfilling the law as Adam’s family or posterity by virtue of union with him became condemned by his transgression of the law. Thus we see the sum of what we have said on this subject, stated by the apostle as follows, whom he did foreknow them he did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his son, that he might be the first born among many brethren; and whom he did predestinate them he also called, and to whom he called them he also justified, and whom he justified them he also glorified; all is done, all is in the past tense; justified and glorified, as well as predestinated, and this can only be true of us in Christ, and in him it is true; for in him we have our predestination, calling, justification, and glorification, all in him and not in ourselves; nor shall we ever be justified in ourselves, if we had the faith of all the apostles & prophets, for faith can do no more in our justification, than in our union with Christ, that it can only evidence the truth of that which was a truth before it did evidence it, so faith never could have apprehended our justification, or have brought us one evidence of it, had our justification not been a truth before, for faith to apprehend and bear evidence too; thus we have seen that union between Christ and his church; clothed him with the right of redemption, and that by 32the atonement all the subjects of the kingdom of God are justified from all things. And now we shall close this discourse, by showing where justification places the church. First, ­ it places her clear from the curse of the law, therefore she cannot be condemned with the world. Secondly, ­ it puts away all her sins and therefore she cannot die eternally, for she is justified into life. Thirdly, ­ it places her in a situation that regeneration will be a blessing to her and within the bounds of the spirits regenerating work, or in the field of its labour, for the spirit of God does not go to work outside of his kingdom, it does not give the blessings of Gods kingdom, to the subjects of another kingdom, nor are the subjects of Gods kingdom prepared to receive regeneration, until they are justified; for it would be a curse to them instead of a blessing, for then they would be born of the spirit and yet under the law, and under the curse, and they would be spiritual and the atonement could not effect them, that is, they would be born of the spirit and so would be spirit; and the atonement could do them no more good than it could do the fallen angels; but this is sufficiently guarded against, and I think this is clearly taught where the flaming sword was placed, to guard the way of the tree of life, lest man should eat of it, while he was under the sentence of death and so live forever, for if the tree of knowledge was a sign or figure of the law, and the tree of life, was a figure or sign of the gospel, then the eating of the former, made the fruit of the latter dangerous; so while we are under the curse of the law, regeneration which is the fruit of the spirit of the Gospel, would be also dangerous; and until the flaming sword is quenched in the atoning blood and is stamped with the signature of Almighty God, from end to end, saying I am well pleased for his righteousness sake; we cannot be regenerated by the spirit; but when we are justified by the blood of Christ, we are prepared to receive regeneration; so I say justification places the church within the bounds of the spirits regenerating work, or in the field of its labour. But justification does not fit the church for heaven, or to enjoy God, it only clears her from guilt, because the atonement of Christ has satisfied the demands of the law in her behalf; but it effects no change in her, and therefore she must be regenerated and born again, for as I said before, so say I now, justification is a law term, and that righteousness which justifies must be according to the law, but all the graces of the spirit, belong to the ministration of the gospel, and cannot come under the curse of the law, therefore, they must follow after justification, that is, they can come to those and to those only, who are free from under the curse of the law; thus justification places the church in readiness for regeneration and faith, with all the graces of the spirit, and it (the spirit) bestows its blessings on all those, that are thus prepared to receive them. And now reader has it bestowed them on you? perhaps you are disputing with this doctrine, because it saps the foundation of vain glorious boasting, and human pride, defeats self righteousness and exalts the Saviour, but pause for a moment, and ask yourself, am I a subject of the spirits operation; if I am not, alas for me! I have no sufficient evidence of an interest in the atonement, whether this doctrine be true or not; but if I am a subject of its operation, I

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have the best evidence of my interest in the atonement, and of my justification by it; and am compelled by infinite goodness, to sing with wonder and joy; O to grace how great a debtor, Daily I’m constrain’d to be; Let thy grace, Lord like a fetter, Bind my wandering heart to thee.

DISCOURSE VI.

On the Work of the Spirit after Justification As we have seen in the foregoing discourse, how the atonement affected the justification of the church, we shall attempt in this discourse to show, how the spirit in its work, follows the atonement and prepares the justified for heaven, for as the very being and nature of love effected our union with Christ, and this union gave him the right of making the atonement and the church the right of being justified by it, so the atonement by clearing the church from under the ministration of condemnation and death, places the church under grace, or the ministration of the spirit; and the work of the spirit prepares them for the enjoyment of God and heaven. First, in speaking on this subject we shall show the state of man before regeneration. – Secondly, What he may experience, and not be under the work of the spirit. – Thirdly, what is the work of the spirit, and what are the evidences of it. 1. We are to show the state of man before regeneration. Before regeneration man is dead in trespasses and in sin, children of wrath, enemies to God, hateful and hating one another, all gone out of the way, none doing good, no not one; vain in their imaginations, and their foolish hearts are darkened, they call darkness light, and light darkness, they have no fear of God before their eyes; the way of peace they have not known, and this is the state of all Adam’s offspring without distinction of elect or none elect, for all that were in Adam, when he represented his whole posterity, fell with him into the same state, for by the disobedience of one man judgment came upon all men unto condemnation; and death by sin, and so death hath passed upon all men, for all have sinned; that is all have sinned in that one man’s sin; and so death passed through him upon all his seed; this was the state of all Adam’s race; when he sinned they sinned, when he fell they fell; when he became exposed to death they became exposed to death; not a spiritual death as some say, but a natural one that is, man being a compound of soul and body, or consisting of both soul and body, was exposed to death and as the soul could never be destroyed by death, it must suffer the pains of death eternally, and thus a natural death, must constitute an eternal death, or eternal dying, and in this exposed state all mankind stand until regeneration takes place, for it has long been proved, that all are under sin, and in this situation, they hate the light, because it shows their evil deeds; and love darkness because it gives them

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opportunity to work the works of darkness; it is over them as a covering, for darkness hath covered the earth, and gross darkness the people; this is the sate of all men in Adam the first, and in themselves as sinners in Adams sin. Thus the elect are both condemned and justified at the same time, condemned in, with, and by Adam the first; but justified in, with, and by Adam the second, for as condemnation unto death came by the first Adam, so the free gift unto justification of life came by the second Adam, and as all that were in the first Adam fell under condemnation in him, as their head and representative, so all that were in Christ the second Adam were justified in him, as their head and representative; and so by nature they are children of wrath even as others, but being given to Christ they are his, and so heirs according to the promise. Thus we have shewn the state of man before regeneration, all condemned under the law by virtue of relationship with the first Adam; and all the elect justified by the blood of Christ by virtue of relation with him the second Adam. 2. We shall now proceed to show what men may experience and not be under the work of the spirit of grace. He may feel all that weight of guilt which the law of God charges upon him; and yet not be a subject of the spirits operation, for the law is the ministration of condemnation and death. When the law was given, the people of Israel were awfully alarmed, with the terriffic sight, the mountain covered with fire and smoke, the shafts of death flying, so that if so much as a beast touched the mountain it was stoned, or thrust through with a dart, and the people were sore affraid, yet not under the work of the spirit, for they could unite in making a golden calf to worship. Men may experience very severe and bitter sensations under the sentence of the law, and mourn with aching and heavy hearts, under the ministration of condemnation and death, and all be like the mourning of the murderer that is condemned to be hanged for his crime; he mourns for the miseries that he is exposed to, and not for the heinous nature of his crime; this sort of mourning has self­love for its parent, the thundering of the law has affrighted it; the fears of hell terrify it; and the thoughts of death and judgment fill it with dismay; so when Paul reasoned of righteousness, temperance and judgment, Felix trembled. This sort of conviction leads men to act like Esau, who has sold his birth right; but when he saw that he was cut off thereby, he sought for a place of repentance in Isaac, but found none though he sought it carefully with tears; so men under this kind of conviction set about to seek for some place of repentance in God, by which the law of condemnation may be repealed, and its sentence revoked, and if they can imagine that they have prevailed on God to love them, and revoke the sentence of the law, upon conditions of what they have done, and what they now promise faithfully to do, they may conclude that they are christians, and upon their faithfully performing those conditions, all will be well with them; and thus they may have as much zeal for God as Israel had and no more according to knowledge than was theirs; in a word, if the fears of hell bears the greates weight on the mind, we do not believe it to be the work of the spirit, or if our comforts are conditional, and depend on any thing done by us, or any of our faithful performances in future life, we do not believe it to be the work of the spirit; neither have we any right to believe, any thing to be the

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work of the spirit, but that which teacheth in the truth, and as we cannot pretend to show all the impressions that men may pass through, and not be under the work of the spirit; we shall in the third place proceed to speak of the impressions of those who are under the work of the spirit positively. 3. We are to show what is the work of the spirit, and what are the evidences of it. The work of the spirit is to take of the things of Christ and show them unto us; and surely as we are blind, our eyes must be opened, ere we can see those things; and if the blessings of the spirit, are spiritual blessings, we must be spiritual in order to our seeing them, or receiving them, for the natural man understandeth not the things of the spirit, for they are foolishness to him, neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned; but when our eyes are opened by the spirit, we see what is a truth respecting ourselves, that is, we see that we are rebels against God, and that we are not fit to be in heaven; we see that God is the fountain of real happiness; but our sins have separated between us and him: ­ we see the justice of the law in condemning us for our sins, but although we know that hell is the just demerit of our rebellion, yet that punishment is but a small part of our distress, when compared with the weight of our minds for being rebels against God, a sense of being averse to God, an enemy to him, and unqualified for his service, possessing a heart full of evil, a mind prone to wander from God, full of wicked and presumptuous thoughts, and an uncontrollable enmity against God that rises in spite of the endeavours of the creature; these are the things which bear the heaviest on the mind under the work of the spirit, while the subject of this work, is lead to feel something of the weight of his own corruption, and see something of the glory of God, he is compelled to give up all hopes of being saved by any works of righteousness of his own, either as meritorious or conditional, for when he would do good evil is present with him, and he cries, O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death; now he needs no one to tell him, that he is hlpless, for he knows it for himself, here he feels himself condemned in every thing that he attempts, and like the Publican, stands at a great distance, and smiting on the breast, as if he meant, O that this hard, this rebellious, this unrelenting heart was broken into tenderness and love, he cries, God be merciful to me a sinner; for no power but thine can slay this enmity, and I am unworthy, I have no claim on thee, for I am a sinner; have mercy on me, for I cannot help myself, nor recommend myself to thee, but of necessity I am compelled to acknowledge that the fountain of rebellion is in my breast and as a pensioner on thy clemency to cry, God be merciful to me a sinner, thus he is convinced of his standing in himself as one of the depraved children of the first Adam. He is convinced of the impossibility of ever being saved by his own works or of every fulfilling any conditions upon which to be accepted of God, and thus he is prepared to receive grace for grace, and nothing else but grace; and when the spirit hath fully convinced the creature of his own inability to help himself, and has cut him off from all his false hopes and every refuge of lies; then it reveals to him the second Adam, as his representative, with his fullness of grace. It gives him faith which evidences to his justification, by the blood of Christ; leads him to

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understand the gospel plan of salvation, through the mediation of Jesus Christ; Thus they are convinced of the truth as it respects their standing in themselves as sinners, condemned by virtue of the sin of the first Adam, and them in him, and also of their standing in Christ the second Adam, and their justified state in him, and this is their state ever afterwards; they always feel condemned in themselves, and feel the opposition of a depraved nature lusting against the spirit, and bringing them into captivity to sin which is in their members, but looking to Christ, who is made of God unto them wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption, they rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory, receiving the end of their faith, even the salvation of their souls. This change wrought by the spirit, is called regeneration because it is begetting them unto a divine nature. The first work of the spirit on the heart is regeneration, or the implanting of that incorruptible seed with cleaves to holiness, and so it is sometimes called quickened, because this is a living seed, that causes the motions of life to appear, and this is always followed by the new birth which is effected when the soul is enabled to view Christ by faith, and lay hold of the comfort contained in the gospel, and so they are said to be born again, not of corruptable seed, but of an incorruptable seed, by the word of God. Born of the spirit they are spirit; they live on spiritual food; and they serve God in the newness of the spirit; but this divine nature does not destroy the old man, but is the forming of Christ in you the hope of glory; now there is two in one, the old man and the new, or flesh and spirit, and these being contrary the one from the other, maintain a constant warfare, as long as animal life continues; but the spirit is certain of victory, and must conquer the world, for the greater is he that is in you, than he that is in the world. Some have thought that this work of the spirit, emulates against our views of justification, but we think it is a strong proof of it; for when they felt themselves condemned under the sentence of the law it was by comparing themselves with the law, without having any knowledge of Christ as the end of the law, in their behalf; and faith makes no alteration here, for let Paul or the greatest saint in the world compare themselves with the law, without a mediator, and they are as much condemned as even in themselves, and must acknowledge the law is holy, but I am carnal sold under sin, but when they can look to Christ, they can see their justification al complete in him not by a new act of God for their justification, nor by any act of faith effecting their justification, nor by any recent act of the spirit, securing their justification, but by the blood of Christ which was offered in the atonement, answering every demand of the law in their behalf, and thereby removing the curse from them. Now faith is so far from justifying us that it affords us the strongest evidence that we are justified by the blood of Christ; and thus true faith is an evidence of justification in the very sense that we have spoken of it, and the work of ht spirit, is to take of the things of Christ, and shew them unto us, and when his righteousness is shown unto us we rejoice to it; but it was as complete before we saw it as since; so when faith evidences our justification, we rejoice in it, but it was as complete before faith bore evidence to it, as it is since, or else the evidence of faith could not have been true; for we must agree that whatever

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bears testimony to a thing that is not true, before it gives its testimony; must bear false witness; so if our faith does not witness that our justification was a truth before we believed, it is a false faith, that is, if our justification was not a truth, before, faith gave any evidence of it, then faith must have given a false evidence and of course, must be a false faith; so we see that the work of the spirit, is to reveal to us the truth, as it respects our standing in the first and second Adam, condemned in the first, and justified in the second lost in the first, but saved in the second Adam, condemned in the first, and justified in the second, lost in the first, but saved in the second, enemies to God by the first, but reconciled by the second, under the law by the first, but under grace by the second, and being partakers of the depraved nature by the first the spirit makes us partakers of the divine nature through the second, and thus we are both flesh and spirit. And now we shall close this discourse by offering some evidences to prove this work or rather to prove ourselves to be the subjects of the work of the spirit, The apostle shows us love, as an evidence; we love him because he first loved us; here love to God is an evidence that we are and have been loved of God; but how shall we know whether we love God or not. He that loves God will love his brother; for if we love not our brother whom we have seen, how shall we love God whom we have not seen; thus love is an evidence both to ourselves for our comfort, and to others respecting us; for by this shall ye know that ye have passed from death unto life because ye love the brethren; and by this shall all men know that ye are my disciples when ye have love for one another; thus love is an evidence of the work of the spirit. Again faith is an evidence of this work; for it is one of the spirits gifts, & always one of its attendants; therefore it witnesses that the spirit has been teaching us to know the truth; but sometimes our faith is weak, and we see so much evil in our own nature, so much darkness in our own minds, such a natural aversion to good, and such a strong propensity to evil, we are constrained to cry, surely if I was born of the spirit, I should not be so full of sin, and imperfections; here the man is trying to find something good in himself, but he cannot; and there is a good reason for it; for in me, that is, in my flesh dwelleth no good thing: and to know this truth is one good evidence of a gracious work: and so we may say, that one of the strongest evidences, of our being under the work of the spirit, causes us to doubt it the most; that is, seeing the evil of our own corrupt nature, is one strong evidence of our being under the light of the spirit getting a sight of those corruptions still remaining in us in all their strength, make us think surely I have been deceived; for I am the very same rebel that I have always been: but these trials are peculiar to the subjects of the spirit’s work; and these are those that hunger and thirst after righteousness; and they shall be filled.

DISCOURSE VII.

Being an address in which is collected together the sum of the whole matter Studious reader; in this little book you have seen truth exhibited in six

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short discourses; and now we close the whole with this address, in which we purpose to collect together the leading ideas of each, and shew their concord in the system of our salvation by grace. In the first discourse we have shewed that there is but one God, and that all creation is under obligation to worship him, on account of the majesty of his character and glory, and for the favors bestowed on them in creation and providence. In the second discourse we have shewed that this God was manifest in the flesh of Jesus Christ, and was the same object of worship and possessed the same majesty that he did before he was manifest in the flesh. In the third discourse we have shewed, that the human soul of Christ pre­ existed creation, as the medium of operation by which God created the worlds, and was the deposit, in which was treasured up all Gods children; with all their graces and all the purposes, promises and spiritual blessings the church should ever stand in need of. In the fourth discourse, we have shewed that the notion of a covenant under the idea of a bargain is erroneous, and that it is not used in scripture to express God’s determination in our salvation; but that the purpose of God is used in stead thereof, and is the most proper for us to use. In the fifth discourse, we have shewed what the atonement is, who was interested in it, how they were interested in it, and how their justification was affected by it. In the sixth discourse we have shewed what the work of the spirit is, and what are the evidences of it; and now we have collected the leading ideas of each discourse, and shall shew their concord in the system of our salvation by grace. We are taught there is one God, and there is none other but he, and that he is love; he must therefore love something, and he did love Christ; for the very nature of love requires an object, and the very being of love brings forth and sets up its object: thus the soul of Christ was brought forth, and set up as a consequence of Gods being love: but the object of love was not Christ to the exclusion of the church, but Christ with his church in him; he the head and they the members: this is abundantly taught in the scriptures; for when God is spoken of as being from everlasting, there is no dates to express it by; but it is declared to be before creation, as in the 90th. Psalm 2d. verse: Before the mountains were brought forth or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting thou art God. So when Christ is spoken of as the head of his church, and the object of God’s love, it is expressed by the same mode of expression, as in Micah, 5. 2. Out of thee Bethlehem Ephrata shall he come forth unto me, that is to be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting; and in the 8th, of Proverbs, I was set up from everlastiing or ever the earth was, and thus we are taught, that the very nature and being of God from everlasting, set up his own medium of operation from everlasting, whose goings forth as the head of Israel or the church, was from everlasting; as such he represented them before the world was, for he had his delights with them. Thus Christ could say, thou hast

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loved them as thou hast loved me; Christ and the church are but one, as it is said my beloved is but one; but one elect; he the husband and she the bride, the lamb’s wife in him, as Adams wife was in him when they were created; but one beloved; yea I have loved thee with an everlasting love; and again, we love him because he first loved us. – God did not love his people, because of any thing good he foresaw in them, but because his nature was love; Christ and they in him, were necessarily and constitutionally the object of his love; they were the subjects of his kingdom as a natural consequence of his being a king; for the same assemblage of things that constitutes a king, constitutes the subjects of a kingdom, and fixes the bounds of his special dominion; this bound was the human soul of Christ, in which all the subjects of his kingdom were constituted and encircled; and the very being of a king and subjects, implies his right of government, his medium of operation in government, the privilege of the subjects of his government; and the appointment of a king naturally produces all those consequences of his being a king; and although God was a king without appointment, his own independent existance invested him with the right of government, so his own existance brought forth his own medium of operation in government , which was Christ with all the subjects of his kingdom in him; he active and they passive; and thus in him the disposition of God is expressed towards them: all their grace or the favor of their king, is here given them; here the king’s great and precious promises for the subjects comfort and confidence are given; here the king’s great and precious promises for the subjects comfort and confidence are given; here the whole Godhead, undivided dwells, and there is no way to come to this king but by this medium, Christ; no way for God the king, to exhibit his glory to his subjects, but through the same medium; no way to commend his love to them but by the same medium; and thus Christ is a mediator between God and man: not the divine nature of Christ, but the man Christ Jesus, or the human soul of Christ, which we have before proved was and is the man, in scripture and in common use; here we see that God’s kingdom was organized in heaven, before creation, so was not of this world; here was the eternal purpose of God, and the appointment, choosing and predestinating of his people, that we have spoken of in examining the word covenant; thus after the kingdom, with all its subjects and government was completely organized and established in Christ, who stands the active head of the whole kingdom, and in whom are treasured up all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge; when God for his own glory created the worlds it was by Jesus Christ; and when he created man of the dust of the earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, man became a living soul, and ruler over the rest of creation, and was in the image of God and the figure of him that was to come. In this image or figure we are taught what creation was designed for, that is, we are taught by the authority given to Adam, in the image of God to rule over the earth, &c. that the earth is designed as the place where the government of God, in whose image Adam was created, should be exercised; and Adam being created with all his posterity in him, and the law being given to Adam’s family, and their privileges all given them in him who was a figure of Christ, teaches us that Christ of whom Adam was a figure,

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was the one active head, in whom all his seed or Gods kingdom was constituted; and that all the law or privileges of Gods kingdom was given them in him; and the woman being created in the man, and receiving the same name (and he called their name Adam) with him, and continuing in him until all the commands, privileges, prohibitions and penalties were delivered to him, and then being separated in person, but remaining still bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh, we are to be taught by this figure, that the kingdom of God or his church was organized in Christ, and remained in him, until all their rules of government with their privileges, grace and spiritual blessings, were given them in him; and when they were separated in person, or put forth in Adam, they still remain members of Christ’s body, of his flesh and of his bones; and by Eve’s being deceived, and eating the forbidden fruit, and giving it to her husband and he partaking of it from her hand, not being deceived; we are to learn that the church was deceived by the subtilty of Satan and fell in to sin, and under the curse of the law, but that Christ was not deceived, but received sin from the hand of the church; not that he sinned but that he received sin from them, or bore their sins which were set to his account as the head of the church; and as the whole race that was in Adam, was affected by his receiving the fruit from his bride; so we are taught that all that was in Christ, was affected by his receiving sin from his bride; for as Adam by eating the fruit from the hand of Eve, sunk all those that were in him under the penalty of the law, and the power of sin: so Christ by being made sin for us, raises all those that were in him, and makes them the righteousness of God in him; and so when God created the world by Christ for his own glory, he gives us the head piece of creation, as a figure of Christ, by whom he would display his glory on the earth; and when man had fell, from the state of honour in which he was created, and become exposed to death, God let the serpent know, that as he had commenced a subtile warfare upon his kingdom, put forth in the woman, as a figure of the church, he would put enmity between the woman’s seed and the serpent’s seed, and that her seed should bruise the serpent’s head, and he should bruise his heel: this was a declaration of war, between the two kingdoms; for the serpent or the king of the bottomless pit, has become an aggressor by tempting and beguiling the woman; so God declares open war with him, and lets him know, that the medium of his operation should come in the seed of the woman, and bruise the serpent’s head and thereby gain a complete victory over him. Here was some intimation of deliverance by Christ: this was expressed again to Abraham saying, in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed: this work was shadowed out in the ceremonial law or the Levitical priesthood: but wonder O heavens! the weeks of Daniel are expired; the God of glory, with his treasury of blessings for his kingdom, comes down to receive a body of flesh prepared for him to assume, and to publish the rules for the government of his kingdom, make known the medium of conveyance from heaven to earth; exhibit to view his eternal purpose, reveal the glory of his grace in the face of Jesus who opens God’s treasury on earth to furnish his captivated subjects with all spiritual blessings, and engages in the battle, and by death destroys him that had the power of death, that is the devil;

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bruises the serpents head, dies unto sin, vanquishes death and takes away its sting; he bore the curse of the law, magnified and made it honorable, and thereby completed and justification of all his church, and rising he evidenced their justification, and brought light and immortality to light through the gospel; he establishes his kingdom on earth, under the same constitutional government under which it was organized in heaven before all worlds; then he assends to where he was before with all his people complete in him, but in themselves they remain depraved, fallen sinners; but in him justified and saved; but when Christ had ascended up where he was before, the king of this kingdom inspired some of the subjects, to write his will and testament, in which the great purposes and promises of God, with all his spiritual blessings are guaranteed to his subjects; hence the gospel contained in the New Testament, is an exhibition of God’s disposition towards his people, which were in Christ when his kingdom was first organized; but when his kingdom was established on earth it was exhibited in the New Testament for their instruction and comfort here on earth: now the blood of Christ, as the blood of the testator is that which makes the will of force, and places the heirs to the heavenly legacies on fair footing to receive the spiritual blessings, being free from the law by the atonement, and placed under the dispensation or ministration of grace, men of like passions with ourselves are raised; up and qualified by the spirit, to open the will of our heavenly father and the rules of his heavenly kingdom, and point the heirs to the incorruptable inheritance and enforce the law of love; this is called gospel because it is glad tidings of great joy; it presents Jesus Christ as the way to the father; points to his blood, as that by which our justification is completed; commends the love of God, the king to his subjects, and under its ministration, the subjects are brought by divine influence, to mourn on account of their disaffection to their king; thus the goodness of God leadeth to repentance, the divine nature is given them, and they are reconciled to God under the ministry of their minds, Christ in them the hope of glory; they are born again of an incorruptable seed by the word of God: and being born of the spirit they are spirit; they being his people, are made willing in the day of his power; the bond of union is revealed to them, which is love; not that we loved God, but the he loved us and sent his son to die for our sins; they love him because he first loved them, and can say to each other with pleasing wonder, behold what manner of love the father hath bestowed on us, that we should be called the sons of God. Thus the heirs of promise or the subjects of God’s kingdom are prepared to return to heaven again, where they were first organized a kingdom; and having part in Christ’s resurrection being risen with him, they shall all be raised in bodies like our saviour’s glorious body, when the last display that God designs to make of himself on earth shall be made. Then the earth shall have answered the purpose for which it was made, and may be consumed in flames; while Apolion’s armies must retreat from the judgment hall of our king; filled with horror and dismay, under an irrecoverable defeat to roll under the ponderous weight of their own enmity and rebellion, while the law of God which they despised, will now be executed upon them with all its curses. But the subjects of the kingdom of God, will enter into

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the kingdom prepared for them before the foundation of the world, there to enjoy the presence and smiles of their king eternally. Thus we have shewn that the kingdom that was organized in heaven before the world, in Christ, shall be all gathered to heaven again, to enjoy eternal glory in Christ, by whom every display of God’s glory has been made in the government of his kingdom; so we have seen the six foregoing discourses are all in concord, linking together in the system of our salvation by grace. First we have seen that there is but one God and that he is love in his nature and a king in his office; this his nature and official character, set up the human soul of Christ and the church in it, as the object of Gods love, and organized them a kingdom before the world, and that the soul of Christ was that in which the whole Godhead dwelt, and in which his kingdom was organized with all its spiritual blessings; that in this way Christ and God and the church are united together. The man Christ is the head of the church; and God is the head of Christ, thus the being of God as love unites Christ and the church, and this union gives Christ the right of redemption, and Christ’s redeeming them from under the law, completes their justification, and their justification places them under the ministration of the spirit, and the spirit changes the affections, or implants new ones in them, and prepares them to enjoy God and heaven when they drop off the flesh; thus they enter into the kingdom where they were first organized. This great purpose of grace inclosed the church in Christ before the world; and the world was created as a theatre on which to make a display of it. The Levitical or ceremonial law illustrated it under figures. The prophets shewed before the coming of that just one; but the gospel reveals and publishes the will of God in which is a development of the eternal council. The God of glory is manifest in the flesh; the heavenly company sing glory to God in the highest; on earth peace, good will toward men; all the glory of the former dispensation vanishes, by reason of the glory that excelleth: and as Mr. Campbell has well said, it was devised in eternity. Eternal life was promised in relation to it before the world began. Four thousand years prepared its way and introduced its establishment. All the lights of four thousand years twinkle into insignificance, when the blaze of its splendor burst forth. When its august mediator appeared; the rod of wonders drops from the hand of Moses; the mitre falls from the head of Aaron, and the diadem and scepter departs from the house of David, When the sacrifice is exhibited, the brazen and the golden alters lose their victims, the golden censor smokes no more and the sons of Levi no longer minister in sacred emblems. When its promises and its laws are unfolded, no thunder bursts on Sinai, no trembling shakes the ground, no fiery law denounces vengeance, but tongues of seraphs whisper peace. When its worship is instituted, the chosen tribes to Jerusalem’s temple go up no more, the worldly sanctuary not now is thronged with unfit crowds; the bellowing herds and bleating flocks with mingled sounds no longer rend the skies. But social prayers and united songs of triumph, rise from hearts smitten with the love of

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Zion. When its ordinances are instituted, no bloody rights embrws, the administrators hand; no bitter herbs accompany its stored feasts, but from natures wide domain, the choicest elements distinguish its sacred rights; water that purifies and refreshes, bread the staff of life, and wine that cheers the heart of God and man, emblems of Heaven’s best gifts, (Judges 9. 13.) the spirit of benevolence which it breathes, knows no artificial bounds, it respects not climes or nations, tribes nor tongues, but embraces in its boosom the frozen Icelander and the sun­burnt Moor. Its spirit is the spirit of love, of sacred awe, and of a sound mind; its zeal is not the infuriate damon of religious parties, that oft has gorged itself on the blood of human sacrifices; nor is it the child of blinded bigotry nor of wild enthusiasm – it is a true regard for the glory of God and the good of man. Its subjects are not the children of one birth, nor those of one particular family, they are twice born, once from above; their nativity and citizenship are in mount Zion alone. They are not subjects by constraint, but volunteers, a people made willing by the power of the highest. Their obedience is the obedience of love, for their king accepts no other; their seal is no external mark impressed by the hands of man, but an impression made not in the flesh, but in the spirit, by the finger of God. The laws by which they are governed are laws inscribed, not upon tables of stone, or on paper only, ministered by human hands, but on the living tables of the heart. The blessings which it conveys are not surveyed by the sun nor measured by time, they transcend the visible creation, they extend beyond the stars, and endure to eternity. The guarantee of them is not the word of man that repents, nor of the son of man that deceives: it is the promise, the oath, and the seal of the eternal, who is faithful to execute and omnipotent to accomplish. Blessed are the people that are in such a case; yea blessed are they whose God the Lord Jehovah is. For they may rest upon the immutable purpose, oath, promise and grace of God that cannot lie, and rejoice evermore, and in every thing give thanks to him who hath given them everlasting consolation and good hope through grace. And now I close this address, praying that grace, mercy, and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, may be with all our spirits, establishing us in every good word and work. The Two Covenants A Sermon Designed as an appendix to the foregoing work Galatians 4.24. “For these are the two covenants.” In this chapter the apostle showeth that we are under the law until Christ came, as the heir is under his guardian till he be of age; but when Christ came he freed us from under the law, therefore we are servants no longer to it. Then he mentions their great love to him when he first came amongst them as a minister of the gospel; reproves them for their hankering after the law again; saying, tell me ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? for it is written that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bond­maid and the other by

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a free­woman. But he who was of the bond­woman, was born after the flesh; but he of the free­woman was by promise. Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; here the apostle shews us, Agar as a figure of the law given on Sinai, and Sarah as a figure of the gospel; for this Agar is mount Sinai, in Arabia and answereth to (or is in the same rank with) Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. But Jerusalem which is from above is free, which is the mother of us all. In treating on this subject, we shall attempt to shew, first, wherein Agar and her son was a figure of the law and those under it. – Secondly, wherein Sarah and her son was a figure of the gospel and those under it. Thirdly, shew why these are called the two covenants, and Fourthly, contrast those covenants in their design, their ministration, their guarantees &c. 1. We are to shew wherein Agar and her son was a figure of the law and those under it. First the name Agar signifieth a roof, floor, and agrees with Hagar a stranger or that fears. Thus the name denotes the roof or covering of the law, to the Jews in their political and national character; and a floor or platform of government on which they were built; and the stranger that fears, may denote the fear that the giving of the law brought on Israel at Sinai, when they were travelling in a strange land. And again Agar was an Egyptian woman, but bore her son to Abraham in that land that Abraham’s seed was to inherit according to promise, which may denote the law given to Israel after they came up from Egypt to inherit the land of promise. Again Agar was a bond­maid, to shew that the law could not set any of its subjects free. Again Agar was given to Abraham by Sarah after the promise was made concerning his seed through Sarah but could not prevent the fulfilment of the promise, to denote that the law which was given four hundred and thirty years after the gospel was preached to Abraham, could not make the promise (or gospel) of none effect. Again, Agar with her son was cast out, when Sarah had brought forth her son according to promise, and as Agar was a figure of the law or its dispensation, so her son was a figure of those under it, or of the natural seed of Abraham. First in his name Ishmael with signifies God that hears and denotes the attention God paid to the Jews under the law dispensation. – Again, Ishmael was born after the flesh, and not by promise, to shew that those under the law are born by natural or fleshly birth. – Again, Ishmael was Abraham’s son, born after the flesh, and may denote the natural offspring of Abraham, which was under the law. Ishmael was not Abraham’s heir, to shew that it is not those that are born under the law, but those that are born by promise, that are heirs to the blessings found in the gospel. Ishmael persecuted Isaac, to denote that those under the law will persecute those under the gospel. – Again, Ishmael being cast out with his mother soon after Isaac’s birth, may denote those that are under the law, viz, the Jews being cast out and dispersed soon after the gospel dispensation had its birth; and as Ishmael was cast out because he laughed at and persecuted Isaac, so the Jews were cast out because they mocked and persecuted those under the gospel; so Agar and her son is a figure of the law and those under it, or the law dispensation and the Jewish nation under that dispensation: so we proceed to

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shew. 2. Wherein Sarah and her son were a figures of the gospel and those under it, first she was a figure of the gospel in her name Sarah, which signifies lady, princess, princess of the multitude; and this name was given to her because the blessing of God was upon her, and nations of people should of her, to denote that the gospel was to go amongst all nations, with the blessing of God attending it, and bring forth children in different nations, who are to be born again of an incorruptable seed by the word of God, which by the gospel is preached unto you. – Again, Sarah was Abraham’s companion and ruler in his house, to shew that the gospel was a companion of God, and a rule in his house, whose house ye are. – Again, Sarah lived in Abraham’s affections, long before she brought forth any children; so the gospel is the good will of God towards his people; which lived in his affections long before it was manifest in bringing forth children to him. – Again there was a set time for Sarah to bring forth Isaac, so there was a set time for the gospel dispensation to take place. Sarah brought forth a promised seed, to denote that the gospel brings forth a seed of promise, or the heirs according to promise. ­ Again, Sarah's son was born after Agar's to denote that the gospel dispensation should be after the law, and as Sarah was a figure of the gospel, or its dispensation, so her son was a figure of those under it; or the spiritual seed of Abraham, first in his name Isaac, which signifies laughter, and may denote the joy and gladness experienced by all those born under the ministration of the gospel. Isaac was not born after the flesh, but after the spirit, to denote that those burn under the gospel, are born not of the flesh but of the spirit. Isaac was Abraham’s heir to denote that those born under the influence of the gospel, are heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ. Isaac was born by promise, to denote that those born under the gospel, as Isaac was, are the children of the promise. And as Isaac was persecuted by Ishmael, so it is now: but as then Agar and her son were cast out, and Ishmael could not be hear with Isaac; so the glory of the law disappears, and those under it are cast out, when the superior glory of the gospel breaks forth amongst the Gentiles, and brings forth its heaven born children; and so we see that these things are an allegory, for these are the two covenants. And having thus far traced those figures we proceed to the third thing proposed, which is the shew, 3. Why these are called the two covenants, the margin instead of covenants, renders it testaments, which answers to the definition of the word covenant, as given in the fourth discourse of this work: and in shewing why they are called the two covenants we shall divide them and shew, first, why the law is called a covenant, and secondly, why the gospel is so called. 1. The law is called a covenant, because it was an appointment to Israel for their government as a nation until the gospel took place and was to govern the people through a dispensation of time, and again because, it was delivered in the form of a testament, bequeathing certain blessings on its subjects. This covenant has been very differently handled by writers; but I shall also shew you my opinion. – I believe it to be a constitution, for the nation of Israel, forming them into a distinct nation. But in order to treat more fully on this covenant, we 46shall shew the manner in which it was introduced. In attending to this we shall begin with the covenant of circumcision, which was established immediately after the birth of Isaac, and was designed to distinguish the natural seed of Abraham, from all the rest of the world, until the promise made to Abraham thirty years before, should be fulfilled. It was called the covenant in their flesh, and was to be placed on them at eight days old in order to prevent them from mingling with the other nations; that thereby, the seed of Abraham might be traced with ease. This covenant was respecting temporal things, such as a mark in the flesh on all the males at eight days old, a numerous offspring, a temporal country for their possession, and an abundance of good things, as the productions of that fruitful land. God would rule over them, and they should enjoy the blessings of a bountiful providence, and victory over their enemies. But all those promises were conditional “If ye be willing and obedient ye shall eat the good of the land, but the uncircumcised man child hath broken my covenant,” thus the covenant of circumcision was conditional, for it could be broken, and its blessings depended on the willingness and obedience of its subjects. Under this covenant, the descendants of Abraham were distinguished for about four hundred years, while they lived among the other nations of the earth; and sometimes in sore oppression; but they multiplied greatly, so that in the term of four hundred years, they had increased to the number of six hundred thousand men of war, besides women, children, &c. And now the set time being come for them to go to possess their land, Moses being providentially preserved and qualified for that purpose, is sent to them with a rod of wonders, confirms his mission by working miracles, leads the family of Abraham out of the house of bondage, and through the red sea, and “in the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai. For the were departed from Rephidim, and were come the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel camped before the mount.” This being the spot appointed of God, to constitute the circumcised family into a nation, or place them under a national form of government, he separated them from all others, and brought them into this wilderness, and camped them before the mount, and called Moses their leader, and gave him directions, how to place them in order, to receive their rules of government, or national constitution; and after every necessary preparation was made, the law, the national law, or constitutional law, was delivered to Moses, and by him brought to the people on two tables of stone. These ten commandments, or two tables are their constitution, which they are to live under, and by which they are distinguished from all others, in the land which the Lord their God was leading them to possess according to promise in the covenant of circumcision. Now these ten commandments or two tables is the covenant; for although there were many other laws given at the same time, yet the two tables and they only are called the covenant, see Exodus 34. 38. – And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments. These tables the apostle Heb. 9. 4. calls the tables of the

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covenant; then for the safe keeping of the covenant, the tables were deposited in the ark; and on this account it was called the ark of the covenant. This covenant was designed for the same use that the covenant of circumcision was to distinguish Abraham’s family, as a family; and the covenant from Sinai was to distinguish them as a nation; and the latter may be understood as a larger edition of the former. The covenant of all Israel or the Sinai covenant, was also conditional, beginning with a if, Exod. 19. 5. “Now therefore if you will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar people unto me above all people, for all the earth is mine.” This covenant was given on mount Sinai; in a display of the awful majesty of God, to impress the minds of Israel with a sense of the greatness of the authority of its author, and the danger of transgressing it. It taught the duty of its subjects, and guaranteed temporal blessings to them on conditions of their performing those duties. Under this covenant or constitution, there were many laws given for their observation, to rule them in the form of their worship, and at length the law respecting the mitre in the house of Aaron, and that respecting the scepter in the house of David. These were each called covenants, because the one constituted the family of Aaron to the priestly office, and the other the house of David to the kingly office, with respect to the first of these covenants, see Exod. 40. 14. 15. And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments, and anoint him, and sanctify him, that he may minister unto me in the priest’s office. And thou shalt bring his sons and cloath them with coats; and thou shalt anoint them as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto me in the priest’s office, for their anointing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood, throughout their generations; compare with Numb. 25. 12. 13. Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron is thus addressed, “behold saith God, I gave unto him my covenant of peace, and he shall have it and his seed after him; even the covenant of an everlasting priesthood.” – This priesthood is called everlasting, because it continued parallel with the Jewish nation or the national constitution, and as many laws were given under the national constitution or covenant for the nation to observe, so many laws were given under the family constitution or covenant, for the family or priests in their sacred office to observe. – So with respect to the covenant concerning the kingly office in the house of David, see 2d. Samuel 7. 12. 17. And they thy (David’s) days be fulfilled and thou shalt sleep with thy Fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build an house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his father and he shall be my son; ­ if he commit iniquity I will chastise him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men; but my mercy shall not depart away from him; as I took it from Saul whom I took away from before thee. And thy house, and thy kingdom shall be established before thee forever, thy throne shall be established before thee forever. David has this covenant in mind, when it is said, I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant, thy seed will I establish and build up thy throne from generation to generation; and the same is referred to, in Jer. 33. 20. 21. If ye can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and

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night in their season, then shall also my covenant with David, my servant be broken. The throne of David being established forever in this covenant, is like the Aaronic priesthood; it is to last while the nation of Israel remains a nation under the Sinai form of government. These covenants were both absolute and unconditional and of course could not be broken by any act of either Aaron’s family or David’s; neither could they fail so long as the Jewish state continued. But when the kingdom of Israel ceased, and the Jewish form of worship came to an end, and that dispensation was no more, the everlasting priesthood of Aaron and the kingly authority of David, both came to an end with the national constitution out of which they first grew, and the words forever and everlasting as used in these covenants are to denote their lasting as long as the Jewish state and their form of worship lasted. But as we are more particularly concerned with the original covenant or Jewish state constitution, it may be thought that I have made two great a digression; my present business is to shew why the law was called a covenant: and I think from what we have seen it cannot be doubted, but that the word covenant signifies an appointment, a constitution or dispensation. And so the law given at Sinai, being a constitution for the Jewish nation through that dispensation is properly called a covenant. Thus we have shewed why the Sinai law or the two tables are called a covenant; and shall proceed, Secondly, to shew why the gospel is so called. The gospel is called a covenant for the very same reason that the law is so called, for as the law was a constitution for the natural seed of Abraham their national state under the former dispensation, so the gospel is a constitution for the spiritual seed of Abraham under the present dispensation; and each of those covenants can be traced back to Abraham and no further under the name covenant. The Sinai covenant is a larger edition of the law of circumcision, given to Abraham constituting him the head of the natural Israel or Jewish nation. This covenant was given to Abraham when he was an hundred years old; and enlarged and delivered to his natural posterity as their national constitution at Sinai, four hundred years afterwards, in the fourth generation according to promise; and they lived under it until the coming of Christ, which was about fourteen hundred and ninety­one years. So the gospel is called a covenant, confirmed before of God in Christ, (or with respect to Christ) and the apostle saith, that the law which was four hundred and thirty years afterwards cannot make the promise of none effect. Thus from the giving of the law on Sinai, back to the law of circumcision was four hundred years; and from this back to the promise made to Abraham that in his seed all the nations of the earth should be blessed, was thirty years, which make the length of time that the apostle mentions, which is four hundred and thirty years between the covenant confirmed of God in (respect to) Christ, and the giving of the law. This promise made to Abraham is called a covenant because it constitutes Abraham the father of all the faithful, or head of his spiritual seed; and so the apostle saith, if ye be Christ’s then are ye Abraham’s seed and heirs according to the promise.

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This promise or covenant was confirmed to Abraham in the year of the world two thousand and eighty three, after the flood four hundred and twenty seven years, and four hundred and thirty years before the giving of the law on Sinai, and thirty years before the law of circumcision, and is called the gospel preached unto Abraham. This covenant being thirty years before circumcision and four hundred and thirty before the giving of the law and respecting blessings of a spiritual nature, both the other covenants were made after it, and designed to distinguish the natural seed of Abraham, from all others, until this promise should be fulfilled. – Or in other words the covenant of circumcision was designed to distinguish the natural seed of Abraham as his family, and the Sinai covenant as their constitution was designed to distinguish them as a nation, until the promise concerning his spiritual seed should be accomplished, or until the gospel covenant should be published as a constitution for his spiritual seed; and as the law was delivered first, constituting the natural seed into a nation, it is called the first covenant; and as the gospel comes after, it (the law) has become old and ready to vanish away; and the gospel is called new; new, because God hath made the first old; new, because its subjects are spiritual; new, because its blessings are spiritual and will never be exhausted; new because of its dispensation; and as the first covenant was delivered by its mediator Moses who was faithful as a servant in his house, Agar and Ishmael who were Abraham’s servants, were a figure of it: and Christ the mediator of the new covenant, who was faithful in his house as a son delivered the new covenant to the heirs of promise, so Sarah and her promised son is a figure of it; for these are the two covenants. So we shall proceed to the fourth thing proposed, which his to contrast those covenants, in their design, their ministration, their guarantees, &c. Fourth, as we have seen already, the design of the first covenant, was to distinguish the natural seed of Abraham from the rest of the world until Christ should be born, but the new covenant was designed to distinguish the spiritual seed of Abraham, from Christ’s first to his second coming. The first covenant is designed to teach what are the duties of man to man, and of all men to God. But the new covenant is designed to shew the medium through which any of our duties can be acceptable to God. So in the ministration of these covenants, the first is called the ministration of condemnation and death, but the new covenant is the ministration of righteousness and peace. – The first covenant was ministered from the mount Sinai, that might be touched, and burned with fire amidst blackness and darkness and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet and the voice of words, which voice they that heard entreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more (for they could not endure that which was commended. And if so much as a beast touched the mountain it should be stoned or thrust through with a dart: so terrible was the sight, that Moses said I exceedingly fear and quake.) and the affrighted Israelites, repulsed with horror fled back from the thundering mount, while the law reveals the wrath of God against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, without one hint of mercy. But the new covenant was ministered at mount Calvary or Mount Zion; and 50falls with gentle strains and soothing accents of love and mercy on the ears of its subjects, proclaiming peace to them that are afar off and to them that are nigh; while the spiritual seed of Abraham allured with its grace and glory, and drawn by loving kindness, with gladened hearts and heavenly prospects, repair to Mount Zion, to the city of the living God; to the heavenly Jerusalem; and to an innumerable company of angels; to the general assembly and church of the first born, which are written in heaven; and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect; and to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaketh better things than that of Abel. The first covenant was conditional, see Exod. 19. 5. now therefore if you will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar people, unto me above all people, for all the earth is mine. Thus the first covenant was conditional, and the natural seed of Abraham continuing to be a peculiar people to God, was upon condition of their obedience in keeping the covenant; but being conditional it was broken; or the Jews continued not in it (Heb. 8. 9. Jer. 31. 32.) and therefore were cast forth a as a branch that is withered; and henceforth is good for nothing but to be trodden under foot of men. But the new covenant is unconditional and absolute and therefore cannot be broken; & in this the new covenant is far better than the old; for finding fault with them God saith, behold the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers, in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not saith the Lord. For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts; and I will be to them a God, and they shall be my people: and they shall not teach every man his neighbor, and every man his brother saying know the Lord; for all shall know me from the least to the greatest; for I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more. In that he saith a new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now, that which decayeth and waxeth old, is ready to vanish away. Here the apostle sheweth that the first covenant on account of its conditions not being kept by its subjects; they were disregarded of God; and the covenant was decaying and ready to vanish away. For all its promises, guarantees and blessings, were temporal; and attached to its subjects on conditions; and when they failed to perform those conditions, it ceased to promise or bless them, and so of course became old, and useless, (in these respects;) all its blessings were decaying, for want of the fulfilment of its conditions and was ready to vanish away; so the first covenant was not faultless; or else there should have been no place sought for the second; but finding fault with them, he makes a new covenant; not according to the old, faulty, conditional, decaying one; but one that is established on better promises; without a condition; promises that depend on the veracity of God; and not on the obedience of its subjects; promises of eternal life, and a heavenly country; not of a temporal life and the land of Canaan. Great and precious promises which were given them in Christ the mediator of the new covenant before the

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world began, not these weak, conditional, temporal promises, given to the Israelites in Moses, the mediator of the old covenant at Sinai. The old conditional covenant, with all its temporal blessings vanishes away, when the new one with its unconditional or spiritual blessings, is published by its august mediator. The first is cast out at the appearing of the second; like Agar and her son was at the appearing of Isaac the son of Sarah, which things are an allegory, for these are the two covenants. In the worship or services under the first covenant, all was temporal, see Heb. 9. 1. 10. Then verily the first covenant, had also ordinances of divine services and a worldly sanctuary. For there was a tabernacle made; the first wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shew­bread; which is called the sanctuary. And after the second veil, the table, which is called the holiest of all; which had the golden censor, and the ark of the covenant, overlaid round about with gold, wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded and the tables of the covenant; and over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercy seat; of which we cannot speak particularly. Now, when these things were thus ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God; but into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people; the Holy Ghost, this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all, was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing; which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience, which stood only in meets and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation. Thus the apostle teacheth, that all the services under the first covenant were temporal, a worldly sanctuary, a made tabernacle, a golden pot, an imperfect priest, and the blood of beasts, all were temporal which stood in meats and drinks and divers washing more than figures of good things to come, which were imposed on them until the time of reformation and could not make even them who did the service perfect as pertaining to the conscience; but the new covenant respects spiritual things, its worshippers are born of the spirit, and when they worship, they worship in spirit and in truth; they have boldness at a throne of grace, when they come together, they come with Psalms & Hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in their hearts to the Lord. The first covenant was dedicated to or enjoined on the natural seed of Abraham by blood; for when Moses had spoken every precept to the people according to the laws, he took the blood of calves and goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book and all the people saying; this is the blood of the covenant which God hath enjoined unto you: but the new covenant was dedicated by the blood of Jesus Christ as of a lamb without spot; Blood that sprinkles the conscience, and cleanses us from dead works to serve the living God; and thus we have shewed the two covenants; the first from Mount Sinai, which promise nothing but temporal blessings and them only upon conditions of the most implicit obedience, for he that offends in one point is guilty of the whole law; then it follows of course, that whatsoever promise is suspended on conditions, belongs to the first covenant, and those

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that prefer a conditional plan, are such as Paul accuses of desiring to be under the law, for although the law was never delivered unto the Gentiles as a constitution for them, yet the Gentiles as a constitution for them, yet the Gentiles by reading it may see what are its requisitions, and how men must observe it, and what must be the consequences of not keeping it; but alas, how many hundreds there are, that are trying to get the old conditional, faulty decaying covenant renewed again, and imposed upon the Gentiles, but did they but know, that if they were Jews, to whom pertained the giving of the law, and then should they observe every precept in it and enjoy every promise and blessing it contains, they then could only have temporal blessing; for the law cannot give life; for had there been a law given which could have given life, then verily righteousness should have been by the law. But the law was given that the offence might abound. Sin is a transgression of the law, & the law is the strength of sin, that is, a breach of the conditions of the law is sin, and that sin abounds, and the law is the strength of it, saying cursed is every one that continueth not in all things written in the book of the law to do them. Now if the natural seed of Abraham could not retain temporal blessing upon a conditional plan, how can we Gentiles expect to obtain spiritual blessings upon a conditional plan. Well might Paul be surprised at this and say; O, foolish Gallatians who hath bewitched you that you should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth crucified amongst you; this only would I learn of you, received ye the spirit by the works of the law or by the hearing of faith? Thus the law being conditional and all its promises conditional; and respecting temporal blessings; and the gospel being unconditional and all its promises unconditional and respecting spiritual blessings, there is a plain line of distinction drawn between the law and gospel, or old and new covenant; and whatever is conditional is after the model of the law, and they who cleave to the conditional plan, are those that desire to be under the church constitution or new covenant; for this line of distinction has been kept up from first to last, for when the gospel was first preached to Abraham, it was unconditional, Gen. 12. 3. In thee shall all families of the earth be blessed, so when it is spoken in Gen. 18.18. And all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him, see Acts 3. 25. Compare Gal. 3. 8. All these are unconditional promises, and they all belong to the new covenant, which says I will be your God and ye shall be my people. These passages trace the new covenant from the first date of its being, spoken of as a covenant, down to its being published in the beginning of the gospel dispensation, which was about nineteen hundred and twenty­one years, and not one condition in it from the first to the last. Thus we see that all the gospel is absolute; but the old covenant is all conditional. The first account of it begins with an if, ­ if ye be willing and obedient ye shall eat the good of the land, and when delivered to Israel at Sinai, it still begins with the same conditional particle if, if ye will obey my voice indeed and keep my covenant, c. So the first covenant began with an if, continued with an if, and vanished away on account of its if’s not being observed. So we have traced the first covenant as far back as it is called a covenant, which is thirty years after

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the gospel was preached to Abraham, as it respects circumcision, and four hundred and thirty years, as it respects the constitution of the nation of Israel; and it continued as their constitution until the coming of Christ, which was fourteen hundred and ninety­one years: so we see that the first covenant, was conditional from first to last; then it follows that the conditional plan, belongs to the ministration of the old covenant, and the unconditional plan, belongs to the ministration of the new covenant. Conditions in a covenant imply an uncertainty, and so Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham, saying “It may be that I may obtain children by her.” But the promise for Sarah is, at this time will I come, and Sarah shall have her son, and these things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants. And now we may clearly see from the above contrast of the two covenants, that it is an incontrovertable fact, that by the deeds of the law, no flesh can be justified before God. The preaching of a conditional salvation, may please the self­righteous Pharisee, that can boast of his abilities, and vainly imagine that he keeps the law, and will gain heaven as a reward for so doing: or the hell­scarred hypocrite, that wishes to do something to get clear of punishment; or the self­righteous sluggard, that would never trouble himself at all about religion, if he did not think that he would receive double pay for all his services. – But it can never either comfort or encourage the truly awakened sinner, that is made acquainted with his own impotency and vileness, and sees that he can do nothing, and knows that he is without strength. We may preach to such a one that salvation is suspended on certain conditions, but the awakened sinner, from sore and painful experience knows, full well that he cannot fullfil the smallest condition, and as long as an if you do so and so, is preached to, and believed by such a one, so long his chains hang about his neck. But when all hopes of salvation are lost, upon any condition to be performed by the creature, great or small, he is constrained to cry, God be merciful to me a sinner, should you tell this man he can believe, and that believing is a condition of his acceptance, he knows better, for he has done his best, and spent all he had, and has got nothing better, but rather grew worse. Here he is taught to know, that he is as helpless as ever any predestinarian preached him to be, and that if his salvation is depending on one single if to be performed by him, he is gone forever. Every condition ministers condemnation and death to him; for although he consents unto the law that it is good, yet he knows that he is carnal, sold under sin, and is ready to say with Paul, “for that which I do I allow not; for I would, that I do not; but what I hate, that do I. And the commandment which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death, for sin taking occasion by the commandment deceived me, and by it slew me.” Wherefore, the law is holy and the commandment holy and just and good. Was then that which is good made death unto me? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin, working death in me by that which is good; that sin by the commandment might become exceeding sinful! – Now the man is convinced of his lost estate; sin by the commandment becomes exceeding sinful, deceives him, works death in him, and slays him, and so he finds the commandment to be unto death. And this is as far as the old conditional covenant can go; for it never pretended to pardon even the smallest offence, nor to promise spiritual

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blessings to the most obedient subject under it: much less to the Gentiles, which were not entitled to any of the blessings which it did promise, and so we see that the preaching of a conditional salvation, is using the law unlawfully, perverting the gospel, blending them together, drawing the veil of Moses, over the face of Christ to hid the glory of his grace, and the spiritual blessings of the new, absolute covenant, under the dusky shades of the old conditional one, and thereby making the fulfilment, of the conditions of the old covenant an indispensable prerequisite, enjoined on us, in order to a participation of the promises of the new one: and then attaching the curses of the old one, to the graces of the new, and as its counter part, thunder them against both saints and sinners, Jews and Gentiles, who do not fulfil the conditions of the gospel, (for this mixture of the two covenants is all called gospel by its arbiters,) and thus they build up the self­righteous Pharisee and drive, if possible, the saint and the awakened sinner, into dispair; for they know that they cannot fulfill the conditions and of course dispair of enjoying the promise. – But when the old covenant is placed in its own dispensation, it is good to shew the malignity of sin, and the penalty annexed to it. But the new covenant, alone can reveal the pardoning grace of that God, “who also hath made us able ministers of the New Testament; not of the letter but of the spirit, for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.” So the Apostle contrasts the two covenants, and shews that the new far excels in glory, see 2d. Cor. 3d. chapter. “But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of countenance, which glory was to be done away; how shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious?” “For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory. For even that which was made glorious, had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth. – For if that which was done away, was glorious, much more that which remaineth is glorious. Seeing then that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech; and not as Moses. which put a veil over his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished: but their minds were blinded; for until this day remaineth the same veil untaken away in the reading of the old Testament (or old covenant) which veil is done away in Christ. But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart: Nevertheless when it (the old covenant) shall turn to the lord, the veil shall be taken away.” – From this contrast of the old and new covenants, it clearly appears that the former disappeared, at the bursting forth of the superior glory of the latter: and Moses the mediator of the first, puts a veil on his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished. Now Christ is the end of the law for righteousness; the very thing that fulfils every condition of the old covenant; and when it (the old covenant) shall turn to him the veil shall be taken away, and the end of the glory of the old covenant, shall be clearly seen; and we shall all both Jews and Gentiles look into the new covenant or gospel

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and the veil is taken away and we see the end of the old one, which has vanished away, and the unspeakable glory of the new, beaming in the face of Christ its mediator. We behold, as in a glass, the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the spirit of the Lord. Thus the new covenant like a glass, reveals the glorious face of its ever living mediator, with eternal life for his sheep, the bread of life for the hungary, the water of life for the thirsty, rest for the weary and heavy laden, a garment of righteousness for the naked, and grace, sovereign, absolute, unconditional, grace for the unworthy. From his lips teems forth the soothing promise, without an if for the disconsolate mourner; and while those blessings are diffusing from his fullness and mourners beholding with joy and gladness, the smiles of his unveiled countenance, his soul is fired with love and filled with peace, while he sees the scepter presented, filled with pardons for rebels, and hears the approbating voice of God, saying; touch and live; while the blood of the new covenant presents his justification, faith lays hold of it and gives evidence to it; and hope anchors the soul both sure and stedfast into that within the veil. Then the fiery Sinai’s thundering and smoke no more afright, conditions no longer discourage the soul, nor can ever the ministers of the old conditional covenant, with all their sophistry and conning craftiness whereby they lay in wait to deceive, make them satisfied to take the galling yoke of the old covenant on their necks again. For they experience, in the new covenant the rest remaining for the people of God; and those that have ceased from their own works have entered into that rest, and all their duties, have become their choicest privileges, and not conditions of their salvation. But some will say, if the new covenant or gospel is without conditions, we would never do any good works at all; no christian if he understands himself, will say so; for he has the very principles of obedience implanted in him, and he services God of choice, for it is his meat and drink, to do the will of his heavenly Father, and no other services are acceptable to God. Others will say that if there is no condition in the gospel, there is no encouragement for the seeking and mourning sinner, but sure there can no conditional promise be framed, that is as well calculated to encourage such a one, as that unconditional promise in the new covenant, saying, I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities, will I remember no more. Others suppose that if the gospel has no conditions in it, that they would rest more contented in their situation; but this is both contrary to reason and experience. Suppose a man is on the verge of a precipice, and a lake of liquid fire beneath him; but he believes that he can by an exertion of his own, at his pleasure get away, or fulfil such conditions, as will secure his escape: he may stand and look down for his amusement, and feel quite unconcerned about his situation; and if fifty passengers should tell him expressing great concern for his welfare, that he was in eminent danger of falling down the precipice and of perishing in the flames beneath, but still strengthening him in his own opinion, he could come away whenever he was ready: the man would stay there until he had satisfied his curiosity all their warnings notwithstanding.

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But should one solitary passenger inform him that he was exposed to unspeakable danger, and that he could do nothing, much or little to get away from the precipice; and should the man be convinced of the fact now declared, how suddenly would his fears be alarmed and his conduct changed; how ardently would he call for help from every quarter; where any prospect should appear: and if no help was afforded, or no deliverer found, with what an aching heart and broken spirit would he bewail and lament his almost hopeless situation. And so we see in experience, the more we are convinced of our helpless condition, the more we are constrained to cry “Lord save or I perish.” So we see the new unconditional covenant is far better than the old conditional one. O that we all could see its excellency, and no more attempt to draw our life and comfort, from the conditional breasts of the bond Hagar and like Ishmael be cast out with her, from the presence of the heirs of promise; but may we like Isaac, suck the unconditional breasts of Sarah, that flow according to promise, or the Gospel which are the breasts of consolation, and like new born babes desire the sincere milk of the word, that we may grow thereby, for these things are an allegory; for these are the two covenants.

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Triumphs Of Truth: Preface Written by Wilson Thompson There is every assurance given in the word of God, that truth shall triumph over error; and that Christ shall destroy anti­christ. With these assurances, the christian in looking forward to the promised epoch, when the present mists and fogs, which have long darkened the religious hemisphere, shall pass away, and the true light shall shine with a splendour convincing to the gain­sayer and transporting to the truly pious soul; but while we are waiting as the expectants of such a day as this, we should employ every laudable means in our power to propagate those truths which are calculated to confirm the pilgrims to Zion in the right understanding of the scriptures, and remove from their minds every clog and tradition, which is calculated to intercept their enjoyments of the truth. The press is the greatest vehicle by which useful knowledge can be conveyed to men, and therefore, I venture to employ its service in giving publicity to the following sheets, which I hope may be profitable to some of the lambs of Christ's fold. I am not altogether a stranger to the common lot of authors, and especially one who appears under all the disadvantages which I am placed under, and in opposition to some of the most popular traditions which have riveted themselves to the mind of the public, and knowing that many of my readers are prepared to look over the following sheets with a criticizing eye, instead of a prayerful heart, with a design to magnify faults rather than extenuate, or pardon my imperfections; but to such I can say, if imperfections are what you look for, no doubt but that you will find enough of them to reward you for your trouble, and gratify your spleeny spirit. No book that ever was written, has passed without censure. The scriptures, written by inspiration of God, have been disbelieved, reproached, and ridiculed by the captiousness of men; and the writers of that holy oracle treated as knaves and impostors! No wonder then if fallible writers should meet with impugners in this divided state of the world. In 1821, I published a small work, which was well received by many of the most pious and orthodox christians, but others found fault with some things which appeared in it; particularly in those places where I opposed the tri­personal scheme of the Trinity, and the covenant of redemption under the notion of a bargain made before the foundation of the world between two divine persons in the Godhead, and where I have spoken of the pre­existence of the human soul of Jesus Christ. I have been convinced that most of these objections have arisen from a misunderstanding of my writings, and from the industry of some designing men, who have warned their people against my books and represented them as being full of Arianism, Sabellianism, Socinianism, Deism, Bramanism, Mohammadism, &c., and by these means many have never read my book, and these have generally found the most fault with it, others were prepared to read it with a strong prepossession against it, and some of these have embraced it, and others have rejected it. I have never repented publishing that work, for I have had the

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humbling assurances of many, that it has been profitable to them, some have professed its usefulness in clearing their minds of many difficulties with which they had been long laboring, while others have been lead by reading it, to serious concern which has terminated in a cordial and comfortable reception of the truth; these tokens of divine approbation, is to me a humbling and copious reward for all my trouble and expense. In the following discourse on the Trinity, I have used the word Trinity, Tribune, &c., not because they are found in scripture, for they are not; but because they are words in common use, and give a correct idea of three in one, or that the three that bear record in heaven are one. I have opposed the notion of three distinct persons, because ­1st. It destroys the notion of the unity of God. ­2nd. It is not scriptural, nor reasonable. ­3rd. It is of Antichrist and is dangerous. ­4th. It is conjecturing on the mode of God's existence further than he has seen fit to reveal it. ­5th. It is distinguishing the only object of worship, into three several objects, individuals, or persons, each of them distinctly considered as an object of worship, each of them to be distinctly loved as a God, and feared as a divine sovereign. How this can be done, I cannot tell, are these persons finite? Then three finite persons cannot make one infinite God. Are these three persons divine and infinite? Then every divine infinite person must be a God; and if there be three distinct divine infinities, there must be three distinct Gods; for what is God but a divine infinite being? And as many such beings, or persons as exist distinct from each other, so many Gods must exist, or else I cannot understand words. Where the three that bear record in heaven are personified, and personal pronouns, personal acts, and personal properties are ascribed to each of them, I understood it in a figure of speech, used not to teach us that three real divine persons exist in the divine essence, or nature, but that this divine essence, or nature is manifested in those several ministrations, or Trinity; and by personification in a figure of speech these are severally expressed in the delineation of the system of salvation by grace, and each of these divine characters are to be understood as the agent accomplishing the work ascribed to it, not as a real person, distinct from the other two as persons, but the same divine Being or God, in whatever character he may be revealed, or however diversely personified, or figuratively spoken of. I pretend not to understand the mode of God's existence, I can know nothing of God, or of his existence, only by revelation, and as he has revealed to us, that "there are three that bear record in heaven, " I believe the fact, as he has told us that these are "the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, " I believe the fact; and as he has never said these three are persons, I cannot make it an article of my faith, but as it is said, "These three are one," I believe the fact; so I have a scripture warrant for my faith, and so my faith stands not in the words which men's wisdom hath devised, but in the words which the Holy Ghost has used; and in this I feel safe; and if I be asked what these three are? I answer, The Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and further than this God has not revealed, and I have no warrant to go any further, but confess myself ignorant of the mode of God's existence, further than he has revealed it. 59In the following discourse on the mediatory nature of Christ as pre­existing, I believe that fact because I find it revealed in the scripture, that the one mediator between God and men is the Man Christ Jesus, and I read of his early appearances to the Patriarchs and Prophets, in the form of a man, conversing as a man, declared to be a man, and confessing himself to be a man. He was some times called an angel, or messenger, which are synonymous words, and signify, one sent with a message, which evidently cannot apply to the divinity; the first was visible to the eyes of men, the last is invisible, and was never seen by man; the first was man, the last was God; the first was a messenger, the last sent him; the man was heard to speak, but no man hath heard the voice of God at any time. Now that he who appeared to the Patriarchs was man, is a fact declared positively in the word of God, and that it was not his flesh is equally evident, for according to the flesh he came from the lines of Judah and David, he took on him flesh, was made flesh &c., so in his early appearances, he was man, but not in the flesh; so in my former work, I have spoke of it under the name, soul or spirit, but as some of my critical readers, took the advantage of these terms, as not being scriptural, I have in this work used the terms man, mediator, &c. That he who appeared to the patriarchs was not a common angel, is evident from his receiving divine titles, such as God, the LORD, Jehovah, I AM THAT I AM, &c.; and from his receiving the worship and adoration of those who saw him, which common angels always refused, but which Christ, when he appeared in the isle of Patmos to John received, although he appeared as a man, or an angel as he formerly had done to the patriarchs, all which go to prove that God was united to the man; that when the man appeared, he was the visible form of the invisible God, and being the mediator in whom God was reconciled, and was manifesting himself, he was both God and man, and of course the proper object of all praise and worship, the same as he was in his incarnate state, or is now in his glorified or exalted state. The Man is the mediator, and in him as such, God chose his people before the world was, and gave them grace, all the great and precious promises, and every spiritual blessing; when man was made it was in his image, when the first promise was given to man after the fall, he in whom all the promises were yea and amen, appeared and revealed it to man in a threat to the serpent. He often appeared to the prophets; he spoke to Moses out of the burning bush; he sent him to Egypt to deliver Israel; he went with them through the wilderness; he gave the law on Sinai; he conducted the affairs of the ancient church; he appeared glorious at the door of the tabernacle, in the temple, and on the mercy seat, &c. &c. Many of his appearances were in visible human form, or shape, and at other times concealed in a light, or blaze of the divine glory, from which his voice was heard; but this glory he laid aside when he became incarnate, and clothed himself with a body of flesh, prepared for him, in which he made satisfaction for sin; and as he approached to the close of his life of suffering he prays for the same glory he had with the Father, before the world was. This the disciples had seen in the holy mount, when he was transfigured before them, and his garments were white as the light; and in answer to his prayer, at his ascension into heaven, they saw a bright cloud receive, or invest him; this 60brightness was that glory in which he afterward appeared to John, as recorded in Rev. l:13, and this was perhaps, the same brightness, or light, which often appeared at the door of the tabernacle, and fixed its abode on the ark, between the cherubims, which was called by the Jews, the Shekinah, or the habitation of God. God is described as dwelling in light, and being clothed with light as with a garment. In the midst of this brightness, there often appeared a human shape, or figure, which was called man, but when Christ became incarnate, and had laid aside this glory, it no more appeared in the temple, on the ark, or at the door of the tabernacle; and was only seen on the mount when the man Christ was transfigured; and at the time of his ascension, when the same form was invested with the same glory; and in that brightness, he afterward appeared to John in the Isle. All of which prove that the man Christ Jesus, as mediator, was in existence when he appeared to the patriarchs and prophets, before his incarnation; as incontestably, as his appearance to the apostles after his death, prove his resurrection; for if God appeared as a man and was known as a man, before Christ as man had any actual existence, then his appearing to the apostles, or John in the Isle, is no proof that he was then in actual existence, but if by frequent interviews which he had with the apostles, we are assured that he did actually exist after his passion, so by the frequent interviews which he had with the patriarchs and prophets we are equally assured, he did actually exist before his incarnation. These truths are settled in scripture language, and of great importance to the public who can read and judge. In the following work, I have made no pretensions to embellishment of style, and no doubt the grammarian may find many imperfections, and I do suppose that no man ever has written a book, under greater disadvantages, as I have been engaged in preaching to several Churches, at a distance from each other, besides traveling a great deal in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky; and have had to write at intervals, as I could catch a day or an hour, from other engagements; but as to the substance of what I have written, I make no apology, believing it to be according to the word of God. He that looks for a book without a fault, will never find it in human production, but as all our works must bear the print of a man's hand, I hope I shall share in the clemency of my readers, and my prayer is, that God may make this little work, a blessing to his people, and the glory shall be his. I hope nothing in the following sheets, will be so construed, as to look like a want of fellowship in me, with any of my brethren who do not see with me in those points, for this is not my meaning. While myself alone am accountable for any thing erroneous in this work, and my God and Saviour be praised for all that good which is in it, or may be done by it; I dedicate it to his cause, and the Baptist community, which I believe to be his Church, into whose hands I now submit it, and subscribe myself your servant for Jesus' sake.

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The Triumph of Truth. Truth, in all ages of the world has been unpopular, but probably never more so, than in the present age; and in no part of the world more so, than in America. I cannot therefore flatter myself, with the pleasing hope of gaining much applause from the public voice of my readers, nor do I aim to court the smiles, or fear the frowns of men; but to take the word of God alone for my criterion. To it I make my appeal, by it I wish my doctrine tried, and if anything should appear in the following work repugnant thereto, myself alone is accountable. When I think of the very important work in which I am about to engage, and know my own imperfections, both as to talents and literature and the general taste for criticism that is almost predominant, I am ready to decline, but when I see the errors, and delusions that are spreading over our land, and the infatuated multitudes, that are floating down this complicated torrent, to the whirlpool of endless ruin, I am again resolved to prosecute my purpose, and if but one be profited thereby, I shall be well rewarded, and my God and Saviour shall have all the praise. As one of the most important subjects in Theology is God and the Holy Trinity; I shall here invite the attention of my serious reader, to a dispassionate, and scriptural elucidation of this momentous article of the christian religion. May God lead my mind to write the truth, and my readers to understand it. OF GOD AND THE HOLY TRINITY. That there is one indivisible God who is unbegotten, absolutely of himself and without beginning, is a doctrine well supported from scripture. Psa.45:6, "Thy throne O God, is forever end ever." Psa.90:2, " Even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. " This truth may also be proven from the things that are seen which declare his eternal power and Godhead, from our own existence, from the existence of all things around us and from his impressions on the minds of men. I think it unnecessary to consume time in offering any arguments in support of the Being, and unity of God; for who but an Atheist ever denied his Being? Or who that professes the christian name, will deny his unity? My present object is, to illustrate the doctrine of the Trinity, or show in what sense God is triune. No article in Theology is more generally subscribed to, than the unity, and indivisibility of the divine essence. Yet while the christian world is so generally agreed to the unity of the divine essence, various are the conjectures, and diversified are the conclusions drawn from the same premises. The Arian, the Socinian, the Sabellian, and the Trinitarian all agree to the unity of the divine essence; but when these different sects undertake to explain the mode of existence in this essence, they are at once divided. One infers from personal pronouns, plural nouns, &c., that there are three distinct persons existing in

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the one essence of God; while another infers from the indivisibility of the divine essence that Jesus Christ was not divine except by delegation. Warm have been the disputes, and fiery the zeal of each of those parties; and many are the cruelties, which have betrayed the malignity of these partisans. This should admonish us to be satisfied with what the scriptures reveal and not go farther than we have a positive, thus saith the Lord, for then we know we are right. Is it not sinful to attempt to comprehend the mode of existence in the divine essence farther than God has revealed it? If so, let us retract and like humble disciples, throw off our loads and clogs of tradition, and come as learners to the Bible for instruction. Let us not be wise above what is written. The first thing for our consideration is, can we comprehend God? No, we cannot, see Job 11:7­ 9. "Canst thou by searching find out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? Deeper than hell; what canst thou know? The measure is longer than the earth, and broader than the sea." Job 37:5 & 23. "Great things doth he, which we cannot comprehend; touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out." See also, Psa. 77:19, Isa. 40:28, Rom. 11:33, 34. From the above passages we are taught that man cannot comprehend God. What folly then! What presumptuous folly to attempt to comprehend the very mode of his existence; but vain man would be wise. Now it is no way mysterious, that the first cause of all things should be incomprehensible; but it is very unreasonable for man, a creature of a day, a child of mortality, a mite and fallen being, to presume to comprehend the mode of the existence of his infinite Creator. The next thing to which we shall invite the attention of the reader is the unity of God as an object of worship. Exod. 34:14. "Thou shalt worship no other God." I Cor. 8, 4, 6. "There is none other God but one; to us there is but one God." See Psalms 83:18, Isa. 40:8, Isa. 45:21, 22. This God is a Spirit, and they that worship him, must worship in spirit. As I presume all professing christians will agree to the unity and indivisibility of God, or the divine essence, I shall pass to the main object of this chapter, which is: the Holy Trinity. This subject is of very great importance, and requires much attention, not only on account of its sublimity and worth; but on account of the spurious philosophy and sophism in which this doctrine has been long shrouded. That we may not err in this article, we come at once to the scriptures, to hear there what God the Lord has revealed. That God is revealed in a triune manner, is evident from I John 5: 7, "There are three that bear record in heaven, the Father the Word and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one." We have been often told that these three are persons, each divine, and one in essence; but does the scripture say so? If not, it is only conjecture; and not revelation. Neither has it any foundation in good reason, for reason forbids the idea of three distinct persons, each one truly and properly God, considered by itself, distinct from the other two, and yet but one God. If the first, second and third person, each one distinct from the other two be a God, there is no reason in saying there is but one God; but if there be but one God, there is no reason in saying that there are three persons and each one distinctly considered, truly

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and properly God. Nevertheless if God has revealed this, we must believe the fact; but I challenge the christian world, to present one solitary text in the Old or New Testament, that says anything much or little about there being three divine persons in the Godhead, or about three distinct persons being one in the unity of the divine essence. If this be a truth, it is not a Bible truth. A word on the Trinity: 1 John 5:7­ "There are three that bear record in Heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one." The apostle is here adducing several evidences, by which the people of God are distinguished, such as faith, love and obedience. At the 5th verse he asks: "Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?" ­verse 6 ­"This is he that came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the spirit that beareth witness, because the spirit is truth. " Here are three, the water, the blood, and the spirit, that bear witness that Christ has come. Shall we call them persons? If so there are three persons in every man for all men have water, spirit, and blood. ­Verse 7 ­"There are three that bear record in heaven; the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are one. " The eleventh verse informs us what this record is: "This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. " ­verse 8 ­"There are three that bear witness in earth, the spirit, and the water, and the blood; and these three agree in one. " See verse 10. "He that believeth on the Son of God hath the witness in himself. " Now it is plain; the earth that the water, spirit, and blood, bear witness in us the believer; for, "he that believeth bath the witness in himself. " So the heaven in which the Father, Word, and Holy Ghost bear record is the church; for, "This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. " Then eternal life given to us in the Son of God is the record borne in heaven [that is, in the church called the kingdom of heaven] and the scriptures contain the record; hence in them we think we have eternal life, and they are they, which testify of Jesus Christ the Son of God, and of that life which God hath given us in him. The word record, and the word witness are synonymous terms, see Rom. 10:2 ­"For I bear them record" ­that is, I bear them witness. The Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, bear record in heaven, [the Church, or Kingdom of heaven] and the scriptures contain the record, which testify that God hath given us [the subjects of this heavenly kingdom] eternal life, and this life is in his Son. These three are one; that is one God, or one testifier. God was manifest in the flesh, God was in Christ who came by water and blood, and the spirit beareth witness because the spirit is truth. "The Word was made flesh. " John 1:14. The Father was in him. John 10:38 "The Father is in me, and I in him." The Spirit was upon him. Isa. 61:1. "The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me. " These three are one. Christ says, "I and my Father are one. " John 10:30. Thus from positive scripture language we see, that when the Word was made flesh the Father was in him, and the spirit of the Lord God upon him; here are the three that bear record in heaven in Jesus Christ ­who came by water and blood, to which the Spirit beareth witness. By water he was manifested to Israel, see John 1:31. "That he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore I

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am come baptizing with water. " When Jesus was baptized, the Spirit in the form of a dove, and the voice or testimony of the Father was given in saying, "this is my beloved Son. " Matt. 3 : 17. " Here the Father that was in him, and the Spirit that was upon him; bear record to the senses of John, that this was the Messiah, and John "saw and bear record that this is the Son of God." (John 1:31 to 34 inclusive.) Here are the three that bear record in heaven, in the one person of Jesus Christ; who was manifested to Israel by water in baptism; by blood he redeemed his church, and the Spirit beareth witness in the church. So in earth, that is, in every believer, the water, the spirit, and the blood bear witness. The water in washing, see Heb.10:22. "Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water." 1 Cor. 6:11. The blood in witnessing to our pardon and justification [1 Pet.1:1­2] and the Spirit in quickening the soul, and applying to it, both the cleansing water, and atoning blood; so these three agree in one. Of what we have said, this is the sum. The three that bear record in heaven are all in Jesus Christ, who established his kingdom on earth, and delivered this record to it in his word. He was the everlasting Father, Isa. 9:6. He was a quickening spirit, see I Cor. 15:45 ­"The last Adam was made a quickening spirit." He was the Word. John 1:14. "The Word was made flesh and dwelt amongst us." Now these three are one; that is, God the Father, or first cause, is a Holy Spirit, or a most pure spirit, as says our confession, and this God was manifested in the flesh, or man Christ Jesus, or the Word, which was the Son of God. The kingdom of Heaven which Christ came to establish on earth, is the heaven in which the record is borne, and the scriptures are the record book, or in which the record is registered. The three that bear witness in earth, are the water to wash his subjects, the Spirit to quicken them, and the blood to justify them, and their earthly body is the earth in which they bear witness, for the comfort of the soul; and these three agree in one God man, whose divine Spirit quickens them, washes them with water by the word, and justifies them by his blood. So we see nothing favoring the tri­personal scheme in this passage; but we find that the whole Trinity was in one person, and the man Christ Jesus, whose divine nature was the Triune God, and whose humanity ­or person was the mediator, according, to I Tim.2:5. "There is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. " Although this text has been so often called or rather forced into the tri­personal service, yet it says not one word about persons more or less, therefore it can prove nothing for them more or less. Objection: May we not fairly infer three persons, as there are three that bear record, and bearing record is a personal act? Answer: We are no better supported in inferring persons from the three that bear record in heaven, than we should be in inferring three persons from the three that bear witness in earth, for bearing witness, is as much a personal act, as bearing record, and as no man ever will attempt to infer persons in the latter case, in any other than a figure of speech, personifying that which is not a person, there is no more justice in the former case, than in the latter. 65Premises must be settled by positive testimony, and then we may infer with some safety, but inferential witnesses will not do to settle premises upon. If I read the account of three thousand souls being added to the church in one day; recorded Acts 2:41, and then infer that all or some of them were infants; I am equally as well supported in drawing this inference, as when I infer persons in the other case. If it be objected on the ground that infants are not mentioned in the latter case; I answer, neither are persons mentioned in the former case, and if I may infer persons from the three that bear record in heaven, then with equal propriety I may infer infant from the three thousand that were added to the church in a day. Then I may as fairly infer infant baptism, and infant church membership in this case; as three distinct divine persons in the Godhead, in the other case. Triumphs of Truth: Chapter 2 Men have sought out many inventions; and have written as though they could understand the very mode of God's existence! I must confess that I have felt sorry to see, and hear, men of grace, and piety, give such a loose to their conjectures on this important subject. First they will tell us, that we cannot comprehend the mode of God's existence; and then, in the next breath, or page; go about to explain the very mode of His existence; by saying, there is but one divine essence, but in this essence, there exists three divine, distinct, and equal persons, each one truly and properly God. Now if God had revealed the mode of his existence to us, in this way, it would have been for us and our children; but as he has not, we know nothing about it. If by essence, is meant nature; and by distinct, is meant separate; and by person, is meant individual; then according to this hypothesis, the divine nature is but one, but there are three separate individuals existing in that one nature; and each of these separate individuals, separately considered, is truly God; and yet, (though each one of the three is God, separately considered) there is but one God. If one text in the volume of revelation, could be found, to say this was God's mode of existence, I should feel bound to believe it; whether I could comprehend it or not. But as I never have been able to find anything in the scriptures, about these distinct divine persons, I must leave it only accounted for, in the same way, that I account for the popes place of purgation. All a phantom of the brain, a tradition of anti­christian origin; which ought to be expunged from every religious creed. If God be one in nature, or essence; and three in person, it argues a plurality of Gods, as conclusively as three distinct individuals of the human essence, or nature, would argue a plurality of men. All men are one in essence, or nature, but many in persons; so that saying God exists in unity of essence, no more proves the unity of God; than saying the human race exists in one essence, or nature, would prove the notorious absurdity, that there is but one man, because but one in nature, or 66essence. If the unity of God be only in the divine essence or nature, and in this essence, there are three distinct, or separate persons; then in the human essence, there is the very same kind of unity, but many distinct human persons in that essence. Now if every separate, or distinct person, of the human essence, be a man, I cannot see why every separate, or distinct person in the divine nature, is not a god. In a former treatise which I published, I hinted, that the tri­personal scheme, was of Anti­christian origin and some of my readers, thought this was rather harsh, and unfriendly. I will here introduce some evidence, on which I predicated that intimation. I believe all Protestants agree, that when the Church of Rome was established by law, it was no longer a gospel church, but immediately became an anti­christian body. This I presume will be acceded to by every Baptist, and if so, my point is easily proven; for in that body, thus established, the idea of three distinct persons in the Godhead was introduced. I will refer the reader to the two creeds, formed in that body; the one called the Nicene Creed, the other the Athanasian Creed. The council of Nice appears to have been called by the Emperor Constantine the Great; by the advice, and at the request of Alexander, bishop of Alexandria. The council consisted of all the bishops in Asia, Africa, and Europe, who met together in his palace at Nice, a city of Bethania. The intention of this council was to evince and condemn from the authority of the Holy Scriptures, the heresy of Arius, a presbyter of Alexandria, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. This council was convened some time from A.D. 318, to that of 325. That the members of this council agreed in this determination, that three divine persons: Father, Son, and Holy Ghost have existed from eternity will appear plainly from the two creeds above mentioned. On this point the Nicene Creed reads as follows: "I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds, God of God, of one substance with the Father, who come down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost, of the virgin Mary; and I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father to the Son, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified." In the Athanasian creed it is said: "This is the catholic faith, that we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in unity, neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the substance; for there is one person of the Father; another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost. But whereas we are compelled by the christian verity to acknowledge every person by himself to be God and Lord, so we are forbidden by the Catholic religion to say there be three God's or three Lords." Now if the divinity of the blessed Jesus be the second divine person in the Trinity, and this divine person was begotten of the Father before all worlds, God of God, than the divinity of the incarnate God was a derived divinity; derived, or begotten of the Father. This is too degrading to my Saviour! What, him who is Immanuel, God with us; he who is the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, begotten! He who is the Lord God of the holy prophets, begotten! He who is called the mighty God, The everlasting Father, begotten! This I cannot admit, for if my God and Saviour is only a begotten or derived divinity,

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how shall I trust in him? The Rev. J. Clowes M.A., in a letter on the doctrine of the divine Trinity, addressed to the Editors of the Christian Observer, p. 13, says, "You know as well as I can tell you, that the primitive christians, from the time of the apostles down to the Council of Nice, during the three first centuries, did not maintain the doctrine of the Trinity under any such idea of tri­personality, and that some of the Greek fathers were offended at the Latin church for adopting it. Thus Gregory Nazianzen, on this subject, has the following words: "The Latin's held the doctrine of the Trinity as we do; but through the poverty of their language, and not rightly distinguishing between the Greek hypostasis and essence, they adopted the persons, lest they should seem to hold three substances in the Godhead." The same author, p.14, says, "You know yet further [or ought to know] that at a general meeting of the vice Chancellor and the Heads of Colleges and halls of the University of Oxford, on Nov. 25, 1695, they judged and decreed the position of the realists, [so called from holding the term person according to its literal and common acceptation] to be false, impious, and heretical, contrary to the doctrine of the church, and especially of the Church of England, and that the Nominals [so called to distinguish them from the Realists] were more correct, who denied the existence of three real persons, among whom were Dr. South, Dr. Walls, Mr. Hooker & many other of great note." Benedict says, P. 23, Vol. 1, "The first general council was held at Nice, in Bythinia," he dates it in 325, and says, "The deputies of the church universal were summoned by the Emperor Constantine, to put an end to the Arian controversy, which then began to rage extensively." He says at this council, that upwards of three hundred Bishops were assembled, and continued in session about a year. From all that I can find on this subject it appears, that some time from the year of our Lord 318 to 325, all the Bishops in the established church of Rome, were called together by Constantine the Great, in order to consult the most effectual method to destroy the Arian heresy from the earth, and for this purpose formed the above mentioned creeds; and then made use of them, as a criterion to try heretics by. However abominable the heresy of Arius might have been, this creed seems to have persecution for its object, the Bishops of Rome for its authors, and the council of Nice for its birth place; for I think no man can show that three distinct divine persons in the Godhead, was ever maintained till about this time. So I still contend that the tri­personal scheme is of anti­christian origin. It is thought by some, that if we deny the tri­personality of the Trinity, we must be Arians, but I shall now clearly show, that while I reject the tri­ personality of the Trinity, I differ three times as much from Arius, as those do who contend for the three distinct divine persons in the Godhead. Arius held that Jesus was the first formed of all creatures, of a super­angelic nature, and a God by delegation. See Elly's contrast page 264. The tri­personal scheme holds that Jesus is a divine person, distinct from the Father and begotten of him; [see the above creeds] the one holds that Jesus was God by delegation, the other holds that he was God by derivation or being begotten of the Father;

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while I hold Jesus to be exclusively God, without delegation, derivation, or filiation, for he does not derive his divinity from his filiation or sonship, but is independently, and exclusively God. Or in other words, they hold that there are three distinct persons in the Godhead, and that the divinity of Jesus is the second one of these persons distinct from the other two, and was begotten of the Father, while I believe that Jesus in his divine nature, was the everlasting Father, the quickening Spirit, and the Word, or that the whole Trinity was in him as his proper, and underived, and unbegotten divinity. Now if three equal persons be three times as much as one of those equals, then on their own plan of reasoning, I hold the divinity of Jesus, to be just three times what they do; that is they hold that in the Godhead there are three distinct equal persons; and that Jesus is one of them, while I hold that Jesus in his divine nature is all three of these equals. They hold that Jesus as a divine person was begotten, by what they call eternal generation; while I hold his divinity to be the whole God to the exclusion of all distinct persons, unbegotten, underived, independent of delegation, or filiation. Now let men or angels, Trinitarians, or Unitarians, Arians or Socinians judge, who is the nearest Arianism, he that holds Jesus to be begotten in his divinity ­­­ or divine person, and of course eternally derived of the Father or he who holds him to be unbegotten, underived by an eternal begetting, or any other kind of generation, but that he is independently God from everlasting to everlasting, the first to the exclusion of all divine persons before him, the last to the exclusion of divine persons proceeding from him. The filiation of Christ is in his human nature and not in his divine nature, yet many works only proper to his divine nature are attributed to him as Son, because performed by him in the human nature, and many of them designed to demonstrate his true Messiah­ship, or that he was the Son of God. Is the Father, the first person in the Trinity? Jesus is the Father. "His name shall be called the everlasting Father." Christ said, "I and my Father are one." ­"He that has seen me hath seen the Father." Is the Word, the second person in the Trinity? Jesus is the Word; for "the Word was made flesh" &c. Is the Spirit, the third person in the Trinity? Jesus is the Spirit; for "the second man was made a quickening spirit." Now if these three are persons they are all three in Christ, and so the whole Trinity of Father, Word, and Holy Ghost is in Jesus, and if these three be one God, Jesus is that God, for he is the "Lord God of the Holy Prophets." So we see, take it any way; Jesus is the whole Triune God, to the exclusion of all distinct persons. Now leaving out the terms distinct persons, as the scripture does, and the above scriptures pointedly prove without inference, comment, or even implication, but in positive language that Jesus is the everlasting Father, the Word, and the Spirit. As these three are one so Jesus is the Lord God of the holy prophets; then my point is proved by positive scripture language, without inference. Three distinct, divine, equal persons in the unity of the divine 69essence, never was, nor never will be proven by the same class of testimony until we get new scriptures. When we take the book of revelation for our guide, how easy, how plain to the child of grace. He believes in a God that is manifest in the flesh, he rejoices to view him in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, and worships the revealed God of the Bible; while many doctors, sages, and priests, are spending years in learned questions and criticisms, in order to find three distinct divine persons in the Godhead; but after all their labor and toil, what is produced? What advantage does the church derive? What profit does posterity receive on this point? Nothing but to be told that the mystery is so great that men cannot know it. What is this mystery? Lo, it is three distinct divine persons, each one truly and properly God, and yet but one God. This indeed is a mystery, and no doubt will be, for God has not revealed it, but what he has revealed, is not designed to puzzle his people, but to instruct them. "Whatsoever was written aforetime was written for our learning, that we through patience, and comfort of the scriptures, might have hope." The christian humble enough to take the scriptures, for his only guide, can set in his cottage, or tent door, with his Bible in his hand, and its consoling doctrine in his heart; and behold the glory of God in the face of Jesus; he rejoices in the hope of the glory of God, and puts no confidence in the flesh, and feels none of the entanglements, of the tri­personal mystery, but beholds God in Christ reconciled to his soul, and feeding him with the word of reconciliation. O my God, let this lot be mine! Every error that has been introduced into the church has been supported by inference, and implication. If the Baptists had never departed from plain scripture, but had been consistent with themselves, and in all other matters of faith and practice, stood on the word of God, and not have moved, without positive scripture, as they have in the case of Baptism, they would this day, be as pure a church in doctrine, as they were in the apostolic age and not divided, and subdivided as they are at present. O Christian brethren, let us return to the good old way, and manifest as great zeal for the doctrine of God our Saviour, as for any ordinance of his house. Whatever may have been our former relaxed state, let us now rally to the standard of the Word of God, and believe nothing in religion without positive scripture; then we shall show that we are christians indeed. Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 3 I shall now invite the attention of the attentive reader, to a more full elucidation of the exclusive deity, or divinity of the incarnate Jesus, or that all we can know of a trinity in God is revealed in Jesus Christ, as the object of faith. The sense in which God is revealed as being triune, seems more to respect the operations of God, than his essence; if he is revealed as the first cause; as the Father of the manhood of Christ, or the author of our spirits, he is properly called Father, which is a relative term, relating to an offspring, or issue. If he be revealed in the labour of his works, either in creation, or redemption, he is properly called the Word, or Son. The term Word, or Son, is

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also a relative term, and relates to a speaker, something spoken, and something spoken too. The Word proceeding, was the human nature, [John 1:14,] the speaker was God, [Gen.1:3,] and when he speaks to us by his Son, or Word, we are the things spoken to. As a man expresses his will by his word, so God expresses his will, and reveals his power in and by his word; in which he goes forth in the accomplishment, or prosecuting his purposes; as he spoke all things into being by the word of his power, so he preserves all by the same word. If he be revealed as an invisible spirit, to quicken the soul and dwell in his people, and yet not in a corporal substance, but a spiritual indwelling, &c., he is revealed as a Holy Ghost. So the triune manner in which God is revealed, seems to be in relation to the triple work in which he is revealed; that is in creation, redemption, and illumination, or regeneration, and not in a trinity existing in his indivisible essence. Now to prove this glorious, this soul comforting, this heart curing and love inspiring; yet alas, this long neglected and almost enveloped truth; hear the unerring word of revelation, as it teems from the pen of inspiration, to guide the feet, inform the mind, and comfort the hearts of Zion's heaven bound pilgrims in their march below. I shall, [in proving the whole Trinity: of Father, Word ­or Son and Spirit to be in Jesus Christ] show that the Father is in him, or that Christ in his divine nature is the Father. Isa.9:6 ­ "For unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder; and his name shall be called: Wonderful, Counselor, the MIGHTY GOD, the EVERLASTING FATHER." Now I would fain hope, that no man who venerates the Bible, will blame me for calling Jesus the Father, since the scripture hath enjoined it on me; saying his name shall be called, not only the Father, but the everlasting Father; and I cannot believe he was to be so called barely in the way of a compliment, or flattery; but because he is the everlasting Father, and not as some say, barely the second Person in the Godhead distinct from the Father, and begotten by him. In John 10:30, Jesus says, "I and my Father are one." Will any lover of Jesus, blame me for believing he told the truth? Surely they will not. If Jesus and the Father were one, then Jesus was not barely the second person in the Trinity, and distinct from the Father, but if Jesus and the Father be one, then Jesus is the Father. When Jesus said, "I and my Father are one;" the Jews took up stones again to stone him; and said he was a blasphemer; and some now who profess some reverence for Christ, call me a heretic, for believing that he told the truth. Jesus then referred them to his works; John 10:37. "If I do not the works of my Father [not the works of the second person in the Trinity] believe me not." If any of my readers should say, that Jesus is the second person in the Trinity and distinct from the Father; I hope they will consider his works, and if he does not the works of the Father, believe him not, but if he does the works of the Father, though you will not believe his word, yet believe for the very works sake, for they are his witness. John 10:38. He adduces them, "That ye may know and believe, that the Father is in me, and I in him." In consequence of saying the Father was in him, and he in the Father, the Jews

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sought again to take him, but he escaped out of their hands. Let those who are contending that Jesus in his divine nature, is the second person in the Trinity, and distinct from the Father, remember that Christ offended the Jews, by contradicting such an idea, and in stating my sentiments verbatim and unequivocally, I do not suppose that the disciples had ever heard or even thought of there being three distinct persons in the Godhead; but it seems as if they had some notion, that the Father was distinct from Jesus, before they were better taught by Christ, their all wise preceptor. When Jesus, speaking of his going to prepare a place for them, said, [John 14:4] "Whether I go, ye know, and the way ye know," verse 5, "Thomas saith unto him, Lord we know not whether thou goest; and how can we know the way," verse 6, 7, "Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no man cometh unto the Father but by me. If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also; and from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him." From his saying if they had known him, they should have known his Father, that they did know the Father, and had seen him, it seems some light began to break in upon their minds on this subject; and in order to gain a more clear understanding, in this momentous doctrine; at the 8th verse, Phillip saith unto him, "Lord, show us the Father, and it sufficeth us." Now if the divine Jesus, be the second divine person in the Trinity; and the Father be the first; and they be distinct from each other; how came it to pass, that Jesus deceived Phillip, so much as to show himself to him, and positively declare; "he that hath seen me hath seen the Father;" and then go on, by arguments the most convincing to confirm the disciples in this delusion, [if it be a delusion] which it must be if the divine Jesus, and the Father be two distinct persons. Why does Jesus call for Phillip's faith in this doctrine, if it be heretical as he does? see verses 9, 10 & 11. "Jesus saith unto him, have I been so long a time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Phillip? He that hath seen me hath seen the Father, and how sayest thou then; show us the Father? Believest thou not, that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I speak unto you, I speak not of myself; but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the works sake." This is the very powerful, and pointed manner, in which the immaculate Jesus convinces his disciples, that the Father is not a distinct person from him, but that they are one. Surely many are much slower to learn, than Phillip was, for they have read this instructive conversation of our blessed Lord, from their childhood, and yet do not believe that Jesus is the Father. Reader let me ask you, doest thou believe? I hope you are ready to confess to your Saviour, Lord I believe, help thou mine unbelief. If so thou canst fall down and worship him. I think it needless to mention any more scriptures to prove that the divine Immanuel, and the Father, are one. If the injunction which God by the prophet lays us under to call him the everlasting Father is to be disregarded by christians, and only complied with by heretics, as they are called, by such as hold that Jesus is not the Father but another person distinct from him. If the positive declarations of Jesus before the Jews, who took up

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stones to stone him for what he said, are to be disbelieved; because it contradicts the notion of his being a distinct person from the Father; if Christ's explanation of this doctrine to his disciples at their request; and his showing himself to them, and positively declaring, that, they that have seen him have seen the Father; I say, if all this is to be sacrificed on the altar of tri­ personality; and all the works, and words, which he refers both the Jews, and his disciples to for evidence on this point; if all these are to be thrown aside, as heresy and lies, by men professing any reverence for Jesus, or the sacred scriptures, it is time to take an alarm; and say with one of old, O how are the mighty in Israel fallen! How are their fine gold changed! Surely there is none that understandeth! Lord be very near unto us, for we are but few; be thou near unto us, for the help of the mighty men faileth. As it is so generally believed, that Jesus is the Word or Son; I suppose it wants no proof; but as I intend to show a trinity in Jesus Christ, I will present the reader with a few witnesses on this point. John 1:1 ­ "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." Here the Word seems to be spoken of in two senses, first as being with God, and secondly as being truly GOD. Just in the same manner this same Word when it was made flesh and dwelt amongst us, is sometimes said to be God, even the Father; and again he says, "my Father is with me." When he says "I and my Father are one," we understand him to speak of his divinity; and when he says "my Father is greater than I," we understand him to speak of his humanity. In the Word when it was made flesh, both these natures were existing, the humanity with the divinity, in the one God­man. So in the Word in the beginning; were these two natures, the Word in the human nature, was with God, but the divine power, or nature, of the Word, was God. So the Word was both with God, and was God, just as Jesus was both the Father, and yet the Father is greater than he. So the Word was with God, and the Word was God, vs.14. "And the Word was made flesh and dwelt amongst us, and we beheld his glory, [the glory, as of the only begotten of the Father] full of grace and truth." Here was the same Word made flesh with both natures in him; yet, the human nature was made flesh, and the divine nature in it, is the glory which was beheld, as the glory of the human nature. Here the Word appears in both natures yet. I John 1: 11, "That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled of the word of life." [see also vs. 2, 3] John begins his gospel and first epistle, in speaking of the Word, and no doubt means the same thing in both places, and though he says "no man hath seen God at any time," [see John 1: 18, and 1 John 4: 12,] yet here he says, speaking of the Word, we have seen it with our eyes, have handled it &c. That is, divinity is invisible; but humanity visible, and so both natures are in the Word still; for the divine life was manifest in the Word here, as the divine glory was in the other quotation. Rev. 19: 13," And he was clothed in a vesture, dipped in blood, and his name is called THE WORD OF GOD." From these texts it is decidedly a fact, beyond all doubt, that Jesus is in the most emphatical language declared to be the Word. Not only in his human nature, which was with God, was made flesh, was visibly seen and sensibly

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handled by his followers; but in his divine deity, which was God, [not the second person] whose glory was beheld in the man, as if it were the man's glory, and demonstrated the man to be the mediator; to be the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth; and the divine life was manifested, as God was manifested in the flesh. This the apostles saw, and did testify that Jesus is the Word, or Son of God. Now as the prophet was not afraid of honoring the blessed Jesus too much by calling him the everlasting Father, I will call him so without any reserve; and believe him to be what he is called; and worthy of all the honors ascribed to him; and as the apostle John when in the Isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ, bears this testimony, his name is called the Word of God. I will call him so with all my heart, and believe him to be what he is called. My next business is to show that Jesus is the Spirit, or that the Spirit is in him. When I say the Spirit is in Jesus, I do not mean by effusion, delegation, or inspiration; although when the manhood, or humanity of Christ is spoken of, it is properly said that the Spirit of the Lord God was upon him, was given to him, and he was anointed with it, &c., but here I am speaking of his divine nature, which was not anointed by the Spirit, or quickened by it; but was the anointing and quickening Spirit itself, independent of delegation, effusion, or inspiration. When the scriptures speak of the advent of Christ in the flesh, they speak of the divine Spirit being upon him in his glory, power, and divinity. See Isa.61:1 ­ "The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me." &c. Here the prophet was personating the man Christ; see Luke 4: 18 ­ "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me." John 3:34 ­ "For God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him." It may be objected, that these scriptures do not prove that Jesus was the Spirit, but only, that the Spirit was upon him, or given to him. I admit it; but he to whom the Spirit was given, and upon whom it rested, was the human nature, or manhood of Christ. Then if the Spirit without measure was given to and rested upon the man Christ, surely it was his divine nature, or divinity, but we have positive witness to the point. Gal. 4:6."God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father." Now the Spirit is said to be the Spirit of his Son, surely none will deny, but the Spirit that was sent into our hearts, was the Holy Ghost, but this was the Spirit of the Son of God, then it was in him, and he is the Spirit. See 2 Cor.3:6. "For the letter killeth but the Spirit giveth life," [or quickeneth, as the margin reads.] But Christ is our life, and quickeneth whom he will. John 5:21, Col.3:3,4. Therefore Christ and the Spirit are one, and not two distinct persons. But the Spirit, and Word being one, performs the same act of quickening or giving life, being the divinity of Jesus Christ, it is properly said, I Cor.15:45, "The last Adam was made a quickening Spirit." The last Adam was Jesus, the Word made flesh, and the glory revealed in it, which was the divinity of it, was the Spirit that giveth life, nay, "the life was manifested;" "the Spirit is life," then the Spirit was that life which was manifested in the Word, and is the Spirit of the Word; not distinct from it, but the very quickening power of it; and so Christ is not a person distinct from the quickening Spirit, but is a quickening Spirit. Rom.8:9, "Ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if

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so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now, if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his." In this passage, the Spirit is first called the Spirit of God, and then the Spirit of Christ. Then if God and the Spirit be one, and consequently God is a Spirit; so Christ and the Spirit are one, and consequently Christ is a quickening Spirit. The Apostle continues this subject, by saying, vs. 10, "And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness." Now the word, "If Christ be in you," and the words, "If so be that the Spirit of God be in you," being used in interchange, evidently mean the same thing; then Christ is the Spirit of God. The same thing is demonstrated by comparing the 11th verse. I presume that no reader of the Bible will feel disposed to dispute, but that the Spirit of God, that quickens, gives life, and dwells in his people, even crying Abba Father in their hearts, &c. is the Holy Ghost. If this is not denied, [which I think the most blinded zeal imaginable cannot prompt a christian to deny] then my point is proven, from scripture language. I have not been under the necessity of depending on inference and implication, in settling my premises; no, I have laid before the eyes of my reader, the chapters and verses; nay the very words which declare; as in the voice of thunder, bursting from the battlements of heaven, and teeming through the pen of inspiration, to arouse the ears and hearts of dreaming mortals; to vivify the almost torpid soul with fresh energy to look with vividness to God manifest in the flesh; and hail him Immanuel ­ "the everlasting FATHER," ­ "the WORD OF GOD," ­ "a quickening SPIRIT." O my brethren in Christ will you not own him, Father, Word, and Spirit too? To you I appeal, who love to honor Christ your God, and never are alarmed, with one remorse for honoring him too much. If hosts of D. D.'s should speak in strains as eloquent as angels, and say, there are three distinct divine persons in the Godhead; and the divine Jesus is but the second one of these; distinct from the Father, and Spirit, and begotten in his divine person by, or derived of the Father by eternal generation, &c. ; are you not ready to say, when you turn your eyes to your Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ," whom have I in heaven but thee, and there is none on earth that I desire beside thee?" Yes, I think like the convinced Thomas, you are saying, I own him to be, " my Lord and my God." Yes he is Jesus Christ, my Lord; and to us there is but one Lord. Now, from pointed scripture language that cannot lead us astray, I have proven that Jesus is, in his divinity," The everlasting Father, the Word and a quickening Spirit. This trinity is revealed in one person, and that the human person, or flesh of Jesus Christ; and is God over all blessed forever. He is revealed, or manifested to man, as the object of faith, the source of comfort, the fountain of life and the God of our worship, and affections. Christian brethren; If the holy apostles and prophets, when under the inspiration of God, were not backward to call our blessed Jesus, the Father, Word, and Spirit, let us call him so, and believe him to be what we call him. If we hold him to be what the inspired Isaiah, the wise master builder Paul, and the beloved disciple John have declared him to be, we have both the old and new testaments on our side; nay even the Captain of our salvation is for us. We

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will, we must plead for his honor. Come brethren, ye travelers to Zion; come up to the help of the Lord against the mighty; come, rally to the standard of the omnipotent Immanuel; the white flag is waving, it is unfurled in the gospel field, and the voice of the scriptures as of the seraphs, invite you to liberty; they proclaim emancipation from antichristian oppression, and our heavenly Father's voice is calling," Come out of her my people." O may every child of grace with jubilant soul repair to our beloved Jesus saying­ " great and marvelous are thy works Lord God Almighty, just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints." Having fully shown, from pointed scripture, that all we can know of a Divine Trinity, from revelation, is in Jesus Christ; my next work will be to prove that the divine Immanuel, is exclusively God; or that the divinity of Jesus, is God, to the exclusion of all other persons, distinct from him. As I have pointedly proved each of my foregoing propositions by the word of inspiration; I propose to prove this, from the same source; and let scripture explain scripture. Then we must be right. I know there are many that are not willing to allow Jesus this honor, but we will hear some parallel scripture texts, speak on this subject; for none but avowed infidels, will dispute the validity of such witnesses, and to them I have made my appeal with confidence, so let us hear their voice, and the case is decided. Isa.6:5 ­ "Mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts." It is said, John 12:41 ­ "These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, [Christ's glory,] and spake of him." Then Christ is the LORD OF HOSTS. Isa.43:11,"I even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no Saviour." Compare this with II Peter 3:18,"Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." Then Jesus is the Lord, beside whom there is no saviour. Isa.44:6, "Thus saith the Lord the King of Israel, and his Redeemer the Lord of Hosts; I am the first, and I am the last, and beside me there is no God." See a parallel in Rev.22:13, "I am Alpha and Omega; the beginning and the end, the first and the last." See also Rev.1 : 8, 11 & 17. In the former text the Lord of Hosts declares he is the first, and the last; and beside him who is the first and the last, there is no God. In the latter text Jesus is declared to be the first, and the last. Therefore, beside Jesus there is no God. Isa.8:13,14, "Sanctify the Lord of hosts himself; and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread. And he shall be for a sanctuary; and for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem." See how the apostle applied this to Christ; I Peter 2:7, 8, "Unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner, and a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence," &c. In the former text, the Lord of Hosts himself is a stone of stumbling and rock of offence to both houses of Israel; in the latter text, Jesus is said to be the stone of stumbling and rock of offence. So if Peter was right, Jesus is the Lord of Hosts himself, and unless there be more than one Lord of Hosts, Jesus is exclusively LORD OF HOSTS. 76Isa.54: 5, "For thy maker is thine husband; the Lord of hosts is his name; and thy redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; The God of the whole earth shall he be called." Compare with Matt. 9:15, "And Jesus said unto them, can the children of the bride­chamber mourn as long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them and then shall they fast." Here Christ is teaching that he himself is the bridegroom. According to John 3:29, "He that hath the bride is the bridegroom." Now if Christ is the husband, and bridegroom of the church, he is our maker, and the GOD OF THE WHOLE EARTH. The church has but one husband and he is not the second person in the Trinity, distinct from the Father, and Spirit, but he is our maker, the God of the whole earth, to the exclusion of all persons distinct from him, and JESUS is he. Psalm 23: 1, "The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want." [It is said the word rendered Lord, ought to be rendered Jehovah] Jesus declares himself to be this character. John, 10: 14, "I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep." Now there is not two shepherds, for Christ says, v. 16, "There shall be one fold and one shepherd." Therefore, Jesus is the Lord [Jehovah] beside whom there is no Lord, in heaven or earth, nor no distinct equal person. Psalm 78:56, "Yet they tempted and provoked the most high God; and kept not his testimonies." The apostle with reference to this same people, and transaction, says; I Cor.10:9, "Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents." From these two texts it is clear, that Christ is the MOST HIGH GOD. There can be but one most high God; therefore Christ to the exclusion of all persons distinct from him is the only most high God. From comparing the old & new testaments, and seeing how the new explains the old; we see beyond controversy, that the only, the most high, and exclusively all the God of the old testament, or that was known by the prophets; is Christ in the new testament and is the same that the apostles own to be "our Lord Jesus Christ," "The only wise God to the exclusion of all distinct persons from him."

Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 4

My next business will be to prove that Christ taught; and the apostles believed that he was God to the exclusion of all distinct equal persons. That the apostles believed as they were taught by Christ, that he was exclusive God, and rejected the idea of any other equal person, that was distinct from him, we call your attention to the new testament, where their faith, and Christ’s lessons of instruction are plainly stated, in the following manner. Compare Rev. 22: 6, 16, "And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true; and the LORD GOD of the holy prophets sent his angel, to show unto his servants the things which must shortly be done." "I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches." Here Jesus teacheth, that himself is the Lord God of 77the holy prophets, who sent his angel, &c. Now can there be any distinct person from the Lord God of the holy prophets, and equal with him? Is not the tri­personal plan false, according to these texts? Compare Rev.1:8,13,17, in the 8th verse it is said, "I am ALPHA, and OMEGA, the beginning and the ending, saith the LORD, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty ." This august speaker [in vs. 13] is declared to be, "like unto the son of man." If any doubt should remain on the mind of the reader, whether this was Jesus or not, he can read the 18th verse and he will be satisfied, vs. 17, "I am the first, and the last." From these texts we find that Jesus taught; that himself was the first, and the last, the Alpha, the Omega, the Lord, and the Almighty. He is the first to the exclusion of all first persons distinct from him; and he is the last, to the exclusion of all third, or last persons, distinct from him. He is the Almighty, to the exclusion of all equal persons, [for there can be but one Almighty] and he is the Lord to the exclusion of all Lords as distinct persons from him. "These are the true sayings of God." Reader examine yourself, whether you be in the faith. When Zacharias was speaking of John the Baptist; he said Luke 1 :76, "And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the HIGHEST; for thou shalt go before the face of the LORD, to prepare his ways." Christ in speaking of this John says, Mat. 11:10, "For this is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. " John went before the face of Jesus, to prepare his way before him. Therefore Jesus is the Lord, the Highest, before whose face John was sent; and whose prophet he was. Then Jesus was the Lord, the Highest; and as there can be but one Highest, Jesus is the Highest and can have no equal, that is distinct from him, for he is the Highest. Compare I Cor.8: 6, with John 20: 28. In the first of these places, Paul says, "To us there is but one God the Father." In the other, Thomas says to Jesus, "My Lord and my God." Then Jesus and the Father could not be two distinct Persons, for while Paul owned no God but the Father; Thomas said Jesus was his Lord and his God. Then Jesus is all the God that the apostles acknowledged, as a God to them. II Cor.5:19, "To wit, that God [not the second person, but God himself] was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation." Now if there were a first, and a third person, equal with, and distinct from the God in Christ, I know of no way of reconciliation to them, for it is the God in Christ [manifest in the flesh] that hath committed to us, the word of reconciliation. This agrees with the two last mentioned texts, and shows that while the apostles owned no God distinct from the Father, Jesus was their Lord and God; so the God in Christ, or Christ as God, was the only Lord God of the apostles, to the exclusion of all persons distinct from him. Some may try to evade the force of all these plain, and pointed scriptures; by acknowledging that Christ is God, in common with the Father and Spirit; but

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yet a distinct person, from them both. To destroy this futile and illogical refuge, I will adduce a few pointed texts, which will be like fire among thorns, to this cobweb refuge. Col.2: 8,9, "Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. For in him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily." Now, if the Godhead consists of three equal, and distinct persons, and Christ be only the second one of these, how woefully the apostle missed it, and how improper the caution in the text; but if the apostle be correct, and the whole fullness of the Godhead, to the exclusion of all distinct persons, be in Christ bodily, how woefully the tri­personal scheme misses it, and how well timed the warning given by the apostle to the church, to beware lest any man spoil them through philosophy, &c. If the whole fullness of the Godhead dwells in Christ, how can the first, and third persons in the Godhead, be distinct from him? This the apostle might well call philosophy, connected with vain deceit, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ; and let me ask you christian reader, has not the Church been much spoiled by it? While they have been looking in the field of philosophy for two divine persons distinct from Christ, and have almost forgotten, that the whole fullness of [not the second person in the Godhead] the Godhead dwelleth in him [Christ] bodily. Col.l:19, "For it pleased the Father, that in him [Christ] should all fullness dwell." Now if all fullness dwell in Christ, the fullness of the Father, the fullness of the Word, and the fullness of the Holy Ghost, dwelt in him; with all the treasures of wisdom and prudence; grace and glory; then all persons distinct from him, are vague vacuums, or in a state of vacuity. If all fullness dwell in Christ, he is all the fullness of the Godhead, and can have no distinct equal person. If positive scripture proved by scripture, be of any weight, in settling a question of faith in a christian land; my system is fully demonstrated. I have not went about to reason, and infer from implication, and unsettled premises, as the tri­personal writers have uniformly been under the necessity of doing; but from the plain, literal, and positive expressions of scripture language, according to apostolic explanation, and application, the following facts are settled. 1st . That there is but one God. 2nd. That the Trinity, or Father, Word, and Spirit, are in Christ as his underived divinity, and, 3rd. That the whole fullness of the Godhead, to the exclusion of all Gods, was in the person, or body of Christ to the exclusion of all other distinct persons. I shall now point out some few of the evils of the tri­personal scheme; and the fallacy of the arguments by which it is chiefly supported. On this part of my subject, it must not be expected that I can point out those evils, in positive scripture language, or quote scripture to say, the

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arguments for three persons in the Godhead are fallacious. This must not be expected, for as the scripture says nothing about three persons in the Godhead, one way or another, under the name person, we could not expect to find a text to say pointedly there are evils in the tri­personal scheme or the arguments are fallacious that are resorted to in support of that scheme. If I were to start up and say; there are seven distinct persons in the Godhead; no man could find one text of scripture to say, there are not seven persons in the Godhead. One certain and powerful argument against me would be, that the volume of inspiration says nothing about those seven persons, neither is there one text that says anything about three persons in the Godhead. If any man will find one text to prove the latter; I will pledge myself, to find one to prove the former, and the want of scripture is as strong an argument against the one, as the other. Objection: There is a text, I John 5:7, that says, "There are three that bear record in heaven; " and we may fairly infer, that they are persons. Answer: There is a text, Rev.3:1 & 1:4, which speaks of the seven spirits of God, and I am as well supported in inferring persons from these seven, as you are from the other three. Objection: These three are one, and bear record, therefore they must be persons of one essence. Answer: These seven are one, [see Rev.3:1,] and bear record ­ "These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God. " So to infer persons is equally just in this case as in the other. Objection: That these three bear record, and bearing record is a personal act; therefore, we must infer persons, from their personal act. Answer: These seven bear witness, or record, [Rev.1:4,31 & Zech.3:9,] so if bearing record, being a personal act, demand of us, to infer persons in the one case it does with equal force in the other; and so the very arguments that support the tri­personal scheme; with equal force would prove seven persons in the Godhead, for these seven, are the seven spirits of God; and the personal act of running, is ascribed to them, which would prove them to be persons according to the tri­personal plan of reasoning. These things are stated not because I believe in seven persons in God; but only by the analogy to show the fallacy of the argument, chiefly relied on, by the tri­personal party, in support of their fabricated hypothesis. Some contend that there are three real persons in the Godhead; and on this account are called realists. Others hold three persons nominally, and not really, and on this account are called nominals. The evil of the former, is in making a real society of persons in the Godhead, as Hopkins does, [see Ely’s contrast pg. 21] and consequently three distinct divine beings, and objects of worship; or three Gods of one essence, as when they say, that each of these distinct persons is God; considered distinct from the other two. This evil is of such a destructive nature, as to show itself in all branches of their worship. I

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have heard them pray to each of these distinct persons, distinctly, as a separate God. Is there no evil in this? Nay, is there not such an evil, as would make an apostle’s blood run cold; and cause him to say, "To us there is but one God." The evil of the nominals, is chiefly in contending for what they disavow; that is, they contend that there are three persons, when in reality they do not believe the fact, in any other than a nominal sense, so while they contend that there are three persons in the Godhead, and do not believe it is really true, their arguments are only calculated to mislead their hearers, and they are more notoriously inexcusable, than if they did believe what they contend for was a real truth. If their followers should be convinced, that there were three persons in the divine essence, they would believe, what their preceptors believed was not a real, but only a nominal fact. That which is no more than nominal can afford no more than nominal comfort, and if the personal existence of the Father, Word and Holy Ghost, is no more than nominal, the faith which is built on these persons, has but a nominal object, and of course must be a nominal faith; and the nominals are welcome to all the comfort it can afford them, and I envy them not in their nominal enjoyments. The next thing that I shall attend to is, to notice the main arguments of the tri­personal party, and refute them. It is argued by some learned critics on the tri­personal scheme, that the Hebrew name, in the old testament, which we have translated by the word GOD, is Elohim, a noun substantive of the plural number, regularly formed from its singular. I will not pretend to contradict this fare brought criticism. The same critics do admit, that this plural noun Elohim is connected with verbs of the singular number. Now I see no undeniable rule, for forcing the single verb to agree with the plural noun, any more than to change the noun to agree with the verb. When we read the old testament, if we should always read Gods, in the plural, instead of God, in the singular, the whole sense of many chapters that throughout argue against a plurality of Gods, must be rendered unintelligible to the last degree. If our translation is so base; as to mislead us, in a subject of so much importance as this; are we not unsafe in confiding in any of it? For if the word Elohim is plural, and when connected with single verbs, must still be understood as giving a plural sense; then "Gods" would be proper, instead of "God." If it were so rendered through the old testament, the whole beauty and sublimity of the bible would be destroyed; and that sweet agreement that now shines with such convincing resplendence, in comparing the old and new testaments, would all be lost; and a perpetual jargon must reign in its stead. When men are compelled to condemn our translation of the Bible, in order to establish their hypothesis, I think we are authorized to suspect their scheme. I am not capable to criticize on Hebrew nouns, &c., but the Jews who speak the Hebrew language as their native tongue say, that Elohim, is not a plural noun, except in some particular cases, or on some particular occasions; and I know of none that ought to be better judges of the Hebrew language, than the native Hebrews themselves. I therefore, would suppose, that if Elohim were single, except on some particular 81occasions that it must be of the singular number, when connected with verbs of the single number. It is evident, at all events, that our translators, with all the parliamentary inspectors understood it as giving a single, and not a plural idea of God. It becomes us to receive our English scriptures as our guide, unless they are proven corrupt, by proper authority, and when this is done; we should abandon them, and prosecute the proper measures to obtain a new translation. It is a well known and settled fact; that a plural noun is used to express more than one of a kind, so that if the noun Elohim be plural, and when connected with single verbs, must still give a plural idea, it should have been translated by the plural noun Gods. Then it would have been an argument in favor of three, or of three hundred Gods; but it would be no argument in favor of three distinct persons in one God; for the name of God, if it were changed into a plural noun, would not give an impartial reader, or unbiased mind, the most distant idea, of three distinct divine persons in the unity of the Godhead. If changing a noun, from the single, to the plural number would express the idea of three distinct persons in the essence of the thing named, then the noun Ship, when changed to Ships, would mean three persons in the essence of one Ship; the noun Tree, when changed to Trees; would mean three distinct persons in the essence of one tree, &c. One evil arising from this notion of three distinct persons in the Godhead, according to the above criticism, is in striking a fatal blow at the very vitals of all confidence in the English scriptures; and in leading men to worship Gods, instead of one God; for it is a well known and indisputable fact, that the plural of the noun God, is Gods; more than one, but no man knows how many, whether two, three or three thousand; or what number. It is very strange, that Infidels, and the tri­personal party, are the only men that I have noticed, who have had need of this refuge, or of criticizing in this way on the Hebrew Elohim. In Volney’s Ruins, the very same kind of criticism may be seen; by him introduced to destroy all confidence in the scriptures and the same is introduced by the tri­personal party, to support a point [which to say the least] the English scriptures are silent upon; and in order to establish their thesis, they go into criticisms calculated in their natural tendency, to invalidate the English scriptures; but this is only one, among many of the evils of the tri­ personal scheme and we will rather attribute it to the badness of the cause which employs it; than to any evil design in the critic who unfortunately introduced it, for he seems to have been much like Aesop’s fable of the doe, that fed on the bank, and being blind of one eye, she kept her blind eye toward the water, and her good eye toward the plains, to watch for the hunter; but unfortunately for the poor doe, a vessel came by, and an archer from the vessel shot her from the side from which she suspected no danger; so these critics, are exposing themselves to the arrows of the Infidel, while they seem only afraid of Arians, whose net they have only half escaped.

Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 5

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Another main argument which is much relied on, in supporting the tri­ personal scheme, is drawn from personal pronouns. I shall, therefore, offer a few remarks on this source of argument. Personal pronouns are used in the English, in two ways. First, when we speak of a real person, the personal pronoun he, or she, is used instead of the name of the person. Secondly, the personal pronoun may be properly used, when we personify things that are not persons, but in this case the personal pronoun is used in a figure of speech, and does not argue a proper, or natural person; in the thing spoken of; but is only used in a figure of speech. For instance, if I personify the Sun; in this figurative way, it is proper to say, He rises in the east; He sets in the west. Or I may say of a ship, She sails well; She made a quick return. Now what man in Christendom, would infer from this usage of the personal pronoun, that the Sun was indeed, either naturally, or properly, a person, of the masculine gender; and that a ship was a proper person, of the feminine gender? I presume no man in his right mind will ever attempt this; and equally futile, and unjust must be every argument drawn from personal pronouns, to prove three persons in the Godhead. God is a Spirit, every where present, invisible, and uncompounded. Therefore, not a person naturally, and can be naturally, neither male nor female. From his great power he is, in a figure of speech, spoken of in the masculine, and in this figure of speech, the personal pronoun "He" is used for God. When we attend to the idiom of our language, with regard to person­"I" is the first person singular, and is used when the speaker speaks of himself. "Thou" is the second person singular, for the person spoken to. "He" is the third person singular, and is used for the person spoken of because the personal pronoun is thus used in the three persons, with reference to God. Men of erudition have contended that God exists in three distinct persons; while it is an uncontroverted fact, that the personal pronouns are used, both in scripture and in every day's conversation, in the first, second, and third persons, where no one ever thought of understanding a trinity of distinct persons. An instance of this kind you may see in II Cor.12:1 to verse 5, where Paul is doubtless speaking of himself, and speaks of himself under the first, and third person. See verse 3, " And I knew such a man, " verse 4, "How that he was, " &c. Now who ever was so fruitful in invention as to think, or ever pretend to argue, that there were two or three distinct persons of one essence in Paul, because he speaks of himself under the personal pronoun in the first, and third persons? But this would be an argument of equal weight, with any argument drawn from personal pronouns in favor of the tri­personal scheme. It is a well­known, and almost universal practice with poets; to speak of themselves, in the first, second, and third person. The same things occurs in every day's conversation, in all ranks of society; but who from the untaught Hottentot, to the most refined linguist, ever pretended to prove from this usage of the personal pronoun, that there was a trinity of three distinct persons, in every man thus using the personal pronoun. If the personal pronoun can never be used in a figure, but must always identify a distinct, and a proper person, in the first, second, or third person, as it occurs, then there must be three distinct persons, in every speaker, real or fictitious that uses the personal pronoun, with

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reference to himself, in any other than the first person. I think this would be a new theory in our world that would make shipwreck of all books ­the Bible, and common sense itself. Equally absurd, childish, and mischievous in its nature, are the arguments drawn from personal pronouns, in support of the tri­ personal scheme in theology. It may be objected, that those who support the tri­personality of the Trinity; do not hold that there are three real persons in the Godhead; but only that God is spoken of under the personal pronoun in the three persons by a personification, in order to teach us his ways, or methods of performing his purposes with regard to his creatures. On this I could give you my hand freely. If this had been what the tri­personal party has meant by three distinct persons, some would have expressed it before this time. No something more is intended. Personal acts attributed distinctly to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, is another source of argument, much depended on, by those who hold to the tri­ personality of the Trinity. I shall in the next place offer a few remarks on this subject. Were there nothing in the tri­personal scheme of the Trinity, to create a suspicion of its impropriety; when we see its veterans resort to such futile refuges as this, it should start the enquiry, Can that cause be good, that depends on such poor support as this? If it were good, would it need support from such a futile resource? We think, that the very appeal to this source of argument, is in effect giving up the case. Nevertheless, as many have enlisted personal acts as one of their chief braces to the tri­personal fabric, it becomes our duty to animadvert on this their usual resort, under which they have taken shelter, and by which they have attempted to defend, and support their tottering tower. Some may think that I speak too lightly of this argument, seeing many learned, and pious champions for the faith of the gospel, have improved it to their advantage. This is not denied; neither do I wish to impeach those eminent men, who have used it, but their making use of it, can make it none the better. Their arguments were directed against the Arians, and their success; was not in proving the tri­personality of the Trinity, but in proving the divinity of Jesus Christ; this they could scarce fail in doing, and however they might be foiled in other matters, they were sure of victory in the end, for the divinity of the adorable Jesus, is a point which shines in almost every page of the inspired volume. Had those great men left all this round of persons, personal pronouns, and personal acts out of their arguments, and have confined their antagonists to the word of God, they would have been to the Arians, like Sampson was to the Philistines. It cannot be denied by any man in a land of Bibles, but that personal acts are attributed to things personified, without the most distant thought of the thing spoken of, being a real, or proper person. See for example the 65th Psalm, verses 12 & 13, " And the little hills on every side. The pastures are clothed with flocks; the valleys also are covered over with corn; they shout for

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joy, they also sing. " Here we see the personal acts of rejoicing, shouting for joy, and singing; are ascribed to the little hills, pastures, and valleys. Was there ever a reader of the Bible, that from these, and similar passages of scripture, would imagine, that the little hills, the pastures, and the valleys, are persons, either naturally, or properly? No, they would never contend for anything more than a figure of speech. Now if such personal acts do not prove a person really or properly; in the little hills, pastures, or valleys; why is this argument resorted to, in order to prove three distinct persons in the unity of the Godhead? It must show that the cause is but poor, that has to be supported by such a trite argument as this. It may be thought by some, that these are not proper cases; because the personal acts expressed in the examples above, were only spoken in a figurative way and the personal acts of singing, shouting &c., were not literally performed by the little hills and valleys, while those personal acts relied on in support of the tri­personality of the Trinity, are acts which have been literally performed. To put to silence this objection, see a case in Num.16:32, "And the Earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up." Here was both the personal act of opening her mouth, and swallowing; and the personal pronoun her, is used for the earth. Will any man on earth attempt to infer from this, that the earth is a person, of the female gender; having a mouth to open, and a throat big enough to swallow this great company and all their goods? I think no man ever did, or ever will understand it so. Yet, strange to think! Such futile, such strained unqualified arguments are the main support of the tri­personal fabric. The very doctrine of the Trinity itself is offered in support of the tri­personal scheme; as if there could be no such a thing as a trinity, without a trinity of persons. I shall therefore; offer a few remarks on this subject. In a small Book, which I published in 1821 entitled Simple Truth; I said something against the notion of three distinct persons in the Godhead; as being a defect in the Trinitarian plan of reasoning. On this account, some men, not very well disposed toward me, have seized this as a good opportunity to poison the minds of their friends against me, by falsely saying, both, in print and verbally, that I had treated the doctrine of the Trinity with the utmost contempt. This is a false allegation, but I hold nothing against any man on this account; to his own master he stands or falls. By the word Trinity; I understand three in one. By the Divine Trinity; I understand the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; being one. But I never thought, nor do I yet think, that these three must necessarily be distinct, divine, and equal persons of one indivisible essence and each of these persons, separately considered, truly and properly God, and yet all of them but one God, in order to the existence of a trinity; nor did I believe, that the three must necessarily be persons at all in order to the existence of a trinity; nor do I yet believe it. "The Lord God is a sun and a shield. " The sun seems to have a trinity in it; for besides its body, there is light, and heat. Yet I think no philosopher would infer from this­­that there were three distinct persons in the Sun. There seems to be a sort of a trinity in man; for Paul prays, "That your whole spirit, and soul, and body, be preserved,"

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&c. I Thes.5:23. Would any man argue from this notion of a trinity in man, that there were three distinct persons in every man, or in those for whom Paul thus prayed? I think this will never be contended for. Is not ice, snow, and hail three; and are they not all of one essence, and that essence water, and are they not frequently personified? Are not personal pronouns applied to them severally; and personal acts attributed severally to them? But who ever attempted since the world began, to argue from this notion of a trinity, in the unity, or undivided essence of water; that ice, snow and hail, were three distinct, real or proper persons? I think sensible men will never attempt this, in any other way, than in a figure of speech, personifying things which are not persons. From the above mentioned cases we plainly see, that a denial of three distinct persons in the unity of the Godhead, can have nothing to do with a denial of the Trinity; therefore, the doctrine of a trinity, can have nothing to do in proving three distinct persons in the Trinity. I believe I have now noticed all the main grounds of argument, relied on by the tri­personal party; except such as are bottomed on the Father's sending the Son, and the Holy Ghost's proceeding from them, &c. These are only arguments drawn chiefly from personal acts; and as I shall notice them more particularly in the appendix in a letter to Elder Hornady; it would only be a repetition were I to enter on it here also. Suffice it here to say, that the human nature of Christ, was the sent; as he said "I came not of myself but he [the Father] sent me" ­"I came not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me. "Will any man say that Christ did not come to do the will of his divine nature or person? I think none will venture such an assertion; than it was his human nature, and not his divine, that was sent. As the sun sends forth its light, and yet the light always remains in the sun; so the Spirit of God may be sent, and yet not a distinct person; for the personal act of sending, is often ascribed to the Son; but more of this in its proper place. We only say here that when the Spirit is sent into this world, it is not distinct from the Father, and the Word, for the personal acts of the Spirit when thus sent, are equally ascribed to the Father, and Word, as to the Spirit; hence when we are born of the Spirit, we are said to be born by the Word, and God is the Father of the birth. This shows that the Father, Word, and Spirit, are not three distinct persons, but one efficient agent in the work of the new birth. I shall now show a few, out of many, of the evils arising out of the doctrine of three distinct divine persons in the divine Trinity. 1st. The idea of three distinct divine persons­­each of them separately considered as being really, truly and properly God; is the English way of saying, there are three Gods. I never could see any real, or substantial difference, between saying there are three Gods, and saying there are three distinct persons, and each one of them truly and properly God. Where would be the real difference between my saying there are three distinct men, or saying there are three distinct persons and each of them truly and properly man? Would not

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every man understand the same idea from each of these forms of expression? Although men are still saying, there is but one God, yet when they come to define or explain their views, the unity they mean is only in the essence or nature of God; that is, three persons each one truly God, but all one in nature or essence. The same may be properly said of three persons of the human race, for all men are of one nature or essence, but this does not show that all human persons are but one man, because but one in essence or nature. When men reason in this way they always give me good reason to believe, that they, [at least mentally] entertain the idea of three Gods; although they will not come out and express it, or if this is not the fact, they argue so as to cause many others to believe in three distinct and proper objects of worship. This is no untrue or colored statement, for I can with confidence appeal to many of my readers; who have no doubt, heard men in prayer, distinctly address three distinct objects, Father, Son, and Spirit, and pray to them distinctly, for distinct blessings, such as they think to be each one's province to bestow. Why these different invocations? Why addressed distinctly to different, and distinct persons? Why all these different objects prayed to, if there be but one object of worship? Now I will appeal to every man who worships but one God, if the tri­ personal plan has not introduced itself into our minds, to cause many to divide their worship, and address three distinct objects! Now we surely must mentally believe in three Gods, or else we pray to those which are not the proper objects of prayer, for they are not prayed to in unity of essence, but in personal distinctions, and to each for different blessings. O amazing! Is there no evil in this? While the tongue owns but one God, does not the mind entertain an idea of three? Reader, art thou clear? I believe the Father, the divine Word, and the Spirit, are but one, therefore but one object of religious worship, "God is a spirit and they that worship him, must worship him in spirit; " not in three distinct persons. 2nd. A person is a local being, and can be but in one place at a time; and can see nothing but what comes within the scan of his eyesight. The idea of three distinct persons in the Godhead, has fixed in our mind's eye, shapes, or beings, near together, on a local throne, at some great height above the stars, and from thence looking over the world beholding all things in their vast dominion; each one of these enthroned persons, distributing blessings, and judgments, according to his sphere. Search your own heart reader, and say before God, if it is not too much the case with thyself. This is another evil arising from the tri­personal theory. It leads our minds away from the proper, and scriptural doctrine of God's omnipresence and leads the mind to view three local beings, or persons. 3rd. Another very great evil arising from this theory is, in its tendency, in dividing our affections, drawing them away from one indivisible God; and dividing them amongst three separate and distinct persons. These are but a few of the evils arising from the tri­personal theory. These I have not mentioned as an invective, on those of my dear, and much esteemed brethren, whose minds are fettered with these old traditions, which are hard to eradicate. My remarks

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are against the stale theory of three persons in the Godhead, and not against the pious servants of God, whose hearts are much better than their heads, and have long been bewildered with this error; and have been taught to think, it was not their province to think for themselves on this subject. May God help them to know the truth, and feel its power in the emancipation of their minds from all error. It would be too tedious to animadvert on all the evils of this system, suffice it to say, that where ever the tri­personal theory has its influence on the mind, it tends to confuse the mind, veil the truth in mystery, and diminish our views of the real glory of Christ; and to depend upon fare brought criticisms, inferences and implications; to support our doctrine; while without this anti­ scriptural notion, having the light of the spirit in our hearts, and the volume of revelation in our hands; we can contend for the faith which was once delivered to the saints, like Christ and the apostles, did; without once mentioning three distinct persons in the Godhead in the whole contest. Then our strength lies, not in learned criticisms, not in the wisdom of this world, not in inferences drawn from personal acts and pronouns; but in positive scripture language we can tell the Arian; the Socinian, the Jew, or the Mohammedan: ­"To us there is but one God; " and we know that the Son of God is come and hath given us an understanding that we should know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life. Now having showed the imbecility of the arguments in support of the tri­personality of the Trinity; and pointed out some of the evil tendency of this theory, I shall submit the whole to the clemency of the public, with a short recapitulation.

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Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 6 RECAPITULATION.

We have seen in the foregoing; that from the apostles days, down to the Council of Nice, during the three fist centuries of the church, that the notion, or doctrine of the Trinity, was not held under the idea of tri­personality; and this well accounts for the entire absence of all such arguments, in all the disputes which Christ, and the apostles had with the Jews, and others, respecting the divinity of Christ; we never hear one of them introduce the doctrine of three distinct persons in the Godhead; no, such an expression is never recorded in the scriptures. The reason is obvious, it was no part of their creed; for those that do hold it, can scarcely write a sheet of paper, or preach a sermon on the divinity of Christ, without using repeatedly the word three distinct persons, ten or twenty times in a sermon would be but seldom to repeat it over. Surely if the apostles had been of this sentiment, they would have expressed it somewhere; but we hear them say nothing about it; therefore, if we take them for our patron in contending for the faith, we should let it die and be forgotten. We have seen that the Council of Nice was called by Constantine the Great, and that it was composed of the Bishops of the established church of Rome. That their chief object was, to put an end to the Arian controversy. That for this purpose the Nician and Athanasian Creeds were formed; that as persecution was the chief object that this council had in view; so they made these creeds the criterions by which to try them; and from hence the tri­personal theory took its rise, and is therefore, of Antichristian origin; and that it was opposed by the Greek fathers, in its first introduction into the Latin Church; and the only apology which could be made for the Latins was, the poverty of their language and an improper understanding of the Greek hypostasis. We have seen that this notion is not only of Antichristian origin, but that it has many pernicious effects, not only in persecution, which in all its branches is an offspring of Hell, [although I believe the doctrine of Arius was very base and heteroclitical] but in giving us a wrong and improper idea of God ­in picturing in our minds, more than one object of worship, and dividing our worship and affections, among three distinct persons, located at some great distance from the earth; looking from thence, through nature's wide domain, and inspecting the actions of men. Thus many are led to worship a distant and located God, and have almost forgotten that he is Omnipresent and not far from every one of us. O my brethren, arise from these captivating chains; from this galling yoke; from this bewildering and delusive imposition of antichrist. God is a spirit, not persons; to know God [who is a spirit,] and Jesus Christ the mediator whom he hath sent, is eternal life; not to know three distinct divine persons. It is written, "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve;" not that we should worship, and serve three distinct divine persons, each one distinctly considered being truly and properly God. Let us worship God in the spirit; not in three distinct persons. Not the second divine person in the Godhead, but God himself, was manifested in the flesh; therefore, the whole fullness of the Godhead; [not the second person in it] dwelt in him

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bodily. Would we approach to God? We must come by the Mediator, the man Christ Jesus. There is no way to come to the Father but by the Son, as saith Christ, "No man cometh unto the Father but by me. " The Father is in him, and not a distinct person from him, and therefore, no man can come to the Father, but by the man, the mediator, in whom alone man can have access to God. Would you know whether you are born of Cod or not? Examine yourselves, "for except you have the Spirit of Christ you are none of his." The Spirit of Christ and the Holy Ghost are the same Spirit and not two distinct persons. We have showed from positive scripture that our adorable Immanuel is the "EVERLASTING FATHER," therefore, not a distinct person from him; that he is a quickening spirit; therefore, not a distinct person from the Spirit. From positive scripture language, and parallel texts in the old and new testaments, which explain each other; we have showed that the divine Jesus is exclusively the "LORD GOD of the holy prophets." The just God besides whom there is no saviour; the first, and the last; to the exclusion of all first, or third persons distinct from him. We have showed that all we can know of a Trinity in the Deity is manifested in the person or manhood of Jesus Christ, or that in the man Christ, is a trinity of character, or divine operation; or in other words; God is manifested in the flesh, as one God in the trinity of operation, in the accomplishing of his threefold work, of creation, redemption, and regeneration; all of which is performed by One Divine Agent, in a Trinity of character, but not a trinity of distinct divine persons, either real or proper. We have showed from the scripture language, that Jesus is the Highest, to the exclusion of any other distinct persons equal in height with him. That he is the ALMIGHTY, to the exclusion of all distinct persons, as being equal with him in might. And that he is the ALPHA, and the OMEGA, distinct from whom, there can be no equal person. Therefore, we may well say, according to the sweet simplicity of the scriptures: Jesus Christ is both Lord and Christ, "the only wise God our Saviour. " Without a distinct equal in wisdom, and far superior to all persons distinct from him. We have also seen that a denial of three distinct divine persons, has nothing to do with a denial of the Trinity, and that the doctrine of a trinity is no support to the tri­personal scheme, as a trinity does not necessarily imply tri­personality. We have showed that in the light of scripture, the trinity of Father, Word, and Holy Ghost, seems more to respect the revelation, or operation of God, than his essence; or in other words, the scriptural doctrine of a trinity seems to respect God's method of grace in the salvation of his people, and the preparing, conducting, and consummating this salvation according to his eternal purpose, rather than a trinity in the divine essence; or thus, God as the creator of the world, the author of grace, the concertor of the glorious system by which an exhibition of these are made, the Father of our spirits, the parent cause of our spiritual birth, and the giver of all blessings; is brought to view in the scriptures in relation to the elect, both head and body; that is, both Christ and the church, under the relative character of Father; hence he is called the Father of Christ, the Father of our spirits, the

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Father of mercies, and the Church may pray, our Father. God in the execution and accomplishing of the above mentioned system for the salvation of his elect church, became incarnate, or was manifested in the flesh, which flesh was begotten by his power, and so is the Son of God; in whom the Father is performing his purposes of grace, and revealing the blessings of the divine paternity to the church, through the Son, and although the divinity of Christ was not begotten and therefore, did not properly in itself belong to the filiation of Christ, yet it was proper to him as Mediator, and so in Christ was two whole and distinct natures, the underived, and unbegotten God, and the undefiled and holy man, each nature performing the works proper to itself; yet as the man was the Son properly, and in him God was revealing his glory, and fulfilling his powerful works, many of those works proper to his divine nature are attributed to him as Son, because the divinity of the Father, and the divinity of the Son, was the same divinity, brought to view under the two fold character, proper to the two fold revelation of it. God is a most pure spirit, and by an invisible power regenerates the souls of the elect church, and will raise them from the dead, as he did their elect Head, and therefore, God is but one God, of one indivisible essence, existing without a "generation of divine persons, or triune essence, but one essence, revealed in a trinity of character, suitable to the three fold work in which God is revealed to his people. Now this God is the proper object of religious worship and adoration, and is not a distinct person, but the same indivisible God, be him revealed in whatsoever variety of character he may. When we worship God as our Father, with our whole heart, we worship him not as a person distinct from the Immanuel; when we worship God manifested in the flesh, we worship him not as a distinct person from the Father, and when we worship the Holy Ghost, we worship him not as a distinct person from either of the above; but we worship one indivisible God, who is the same undivided object of worship in whatever variety of character he may be revealed; and ascribe to him as God, all, and every divine property, and prerogative, as the whole and exclusive Deity, in whatever diversity of character he is revealed to us; either as Father, Word, or Holy Ghost. Now I hope no man will be so unjust to himself, and to me, as to say, that I hold the incarnate God, or the divine Spirit to be mere names; for I do with my whole heart, most unreservedly, and unquestionably, believe that the divine Jesus and the Holy Ghost are not two distinct divine persons, the former begotten by or derived from the Father; and the latter becoming a divine person by procession from the Father and Son. This idea is too low and diminutive of the blessed Jesus in his divine nature, for it argues that he, in his divinity, [or divine person as it is called] was begotten by, or derived of the Father. Be astonished O heavens at this! Was Immanuel, the First, and the Last, the Almighty, begotten! This I cannot believe, I cannot see any vagueness in these names, since the whole Godhead in all its fullness is intended; the word of God hath used these appellations, with reference to God, in relation to his people and their salvation. I am therefore authorized to use the same appellations, when speaking of the same God, in this relation to the same people, and their salvation; and it is no more just to say, these are empty names when I use them, than when the

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scriptures use them. I can see nothing to make the name Father, Word, and Holy Ghost, with one indivisible and self existent God to fill these relative names, denoting the gracious manifestations of himself to men, in a way of salvation, any more empty, than three distinct persons and one God to rule these persons; but if we consider that these persons according to the tri­ personal scheme are so distinct that the Father is not the Word, and the Word is not the Holy Ghost, then these persons, are much more vague than these names, each of which contain, or reveal, not one person to the exclusion of two equals; but the whole fullness, and glory of the exclusive God. Unless there be three distinct Gods, one in each distinct person, a greater vagueness must appear in each of these persons, while the divinity of each is distinct, than can appear in these names when each name is ruled with the very same divinity undivided, but by these names distinguished, with reference to the different manifestations of that undivided Divinity. As God has been pleased in his infinite wisdom and grace, to reveal himself to us in his word, by the name of Father, Word, and Holy Ghost, I dare not say it is too vague, and as he has never in his word called himself three persons, I feel under no obligation to believe in the existence of such persons; nor can I abandon the phraseology of inspiration, for the phraseology of uninspired men, however bright they may have shined in other points in the christian world; nor do I see any need of attempting to assist revelation by making the addition of person, to the three that bear record in heaven. Christian brethren let us learn humility from the mystery of Godliness, and if in everything we find something mysterious, so in the Trinity we may not feel surprised to find a mystery; let us, therefore be humble enough to go no further in this mystery than the scriptures go, and where they stop, let us stop, and until they say there are three distinct persons in the divine essence, let us reject the doctrine as human conjecture. Let us realize that God is everywhere present, invisible, a most pure spirit, underived, unbegotten, existing of himself, in himself, and by himself; and that in a way of grace and salvation, to, and for such rebellious worms as we, he has revealed himself to us under the endearing, the soul comforting, the love inspiring ­all engaging relations of Father, Word, and Holy Ghost; yet he lets us know, that these are not three, distinct individuals, but ONE. All nature, as an open volume, declares to every attentive, intelligent being that there is a God of matchless power and skill; but only in the blessed Jesus, can we know this God as our Saviour, our Redeemer, our Shepherd, Husband, Father, friend and fountain, shield and buckler, life and head, our sun, our song, our tower, and our hiding place from every storm. Would we approach unto God, we must come by Christ, as he says "no man cometh unto the Father but by me." Wouldst thou know the Father? No man knoweth him save the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him. The man Christ Jesus is the Son, he is the Mediator, the way to the Father, and may I not say, he is the visible form of the invisible God, or in whom we see him that is invisible, for "God was manifested in the flesh;" and by the mediating man alone, can any of the fallen rise and have free access, to a reconciled God; and by this mediator alone can any of the sons of Adam, be reconciled to God. Here 92

believers commune in the spirit, here they have fellowship with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. Here the mourning sinner, heavy laden with guilt and fears, loses his burden, shakes off his chains, bursting as from a gloomy dungeon, he hails God as his Father, and Christ his elder brother, while his very soul experiences a sweet and pleasing transition from trouble to joy, from mourning to praise, from lamentation and woe, to songs of praise; nay, from the border of despair, to the portals of heaven, and sees with great delight, that of a truth, "God in Christ is reconciling the world, " nay, even a miserable sinner, base as I, "to himself." Here let Zion's heaven bound pilgrims still repair for fresh supplies; here let mourning sinners come with all their heavy woes; though their sins be red like crimson, or scarlet, he can cleanse the foulest soul, and make them white as wool or snow. He has a name sufficient to secure your salvation; it is "The Lord our righteousness;" he is worthy to have a name which is above every name, yea, above the name of all persons distinct from him, and let all his subjects rest secure under his unparalleled power and rejoice while they honor him to the exclusion of all other persons to be the KING of KINGS, and LORD of LORDS. Now unto him who is the "King eternal, immortal and invisible; the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and praise, now and forever. Amen.

Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 7 A SCRIPTURAL VIEW, OF THE MEDIATORIAL NATURE AND OFFICES OF CHRIST.

Having published a sketch of my views on the human nature of Christ, in a small work entitled SIMPLE TRUTH, and finding that some people, have vented their spleen against it, and have not been sparing in the most unqualified invectives, even declaring it to have no foundation in truth, or scripture; that it was brooded in my brain, without one text of scripture to support it; knowing my weakness, and liability to err, I determined to give this subject a dispassionate examination, and if there be no positive and pointed scripture to prove this point beyond a doubt, I would recant publicly; for I will contend for no controverted point in theology, without positive scripture language to support it. Having laid aside all books but the scriptures, I endeavored to divest my mind, of all prepossession, feeling more afraid of error than of Hell, I have examined this point by the word of God, with as much impartiality as I am capable of, feeling only solicitous to know the truth, and the following is the result of my examination. I hope my readers may be enabled to divest themselves of all predilections, let the scripture have full weight, and be willing to receive Bible truth, if it should thwart all our former views on this subject, for the truth shall make us free. If I should offer that which is not provable from positive scripture, receive it not; but pray for me, that God may teach me to know the truth; for if I am wrong in this, it is a great wrong. I said in my other book, when speaking of the human nature or manhood of Christ; "We cannot read the scripture without being convinced, that he did exist in a nature

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inferior to the Father, both before the world and since. " Some have found fault with the expression inferior; I was here speaking of his human nature, and I did think that there was no point, in the whole system of theology less disputed, then, that Christ possessed two whole and distinct natures, the one divine, the other human, and I have never read after any man; that believed in this, but what also held, the human nature to be inferior to the divine. This is all that I have said, and how people with no evil bias, could find fault with this expression, I cannot tell? Does not Christ himself say, "The Father is greater than I" and have not the orthodox uniformly understood this to refer to him as man? If so, what more have I said, of this matter, than the Baptist have always said? And our confession substantially says the same. I can see no substantial difference; between my saying, he existed in a nature inferior to the Father; and Christ saying, "my Father is greater than I? " And as I explained this inferiority to mean his human nature, or manhood, all the Trinitarians [as far as I know] believe the same. Therefore I cannot account for the cause, which has induced so many to fault this expression. In Simple Truth, I attempted to show that the soul, was the man, and that the body was only a corporal substance in which the soul acted, but existed independent of the body; therefore, could exist without the body. With this definition and according to these premises, I have used the term soul or spirit, for the man Christ when speaking of his pre­existence; my reason for using this term was to prevent any from mistaking my meaning, and so suppose me to hold, to the pre­existence of the flesh and blood of Christ. When I speak strictly of the human nature, I do not mean flesh and blood, but a nature that distinguishes man from all other beings; this nature I call the soul, or human spirit. I think no one [after examining this matter] will deny the soul being the human nature or nature that distinguishes man from the beast, or in other words, the soul is the essence of man. Every part of animate creation on earth, devoid of a soul, we believe to be a brute, but let the body be of whatever shape, size, or complexion it may, if it is inhabited by a reasonable soul, we believe it to be a human being. The humanity of the body therefore consists in the soul, and the body is only human, by virtue of its connection with a human soul. The essence of man is, therefore, properly his soul. Let the soul and body be separated from each other, the body will soon decompose, like all other elemental bodies when dead; but the man lives in his essence, that is, the soul is not vapid, or dead, but capable of enjoyment or misery, without the body. If the body be called the man, after death, it is with reference to what he was in life, when acting in conjunction with the soul; for I think no well informed man will contend, that the fleshy body devoid of a soul is strictly speaking, man. Every being, therefore, which is properly entitled to the name man, must be of the essence of man; this essence or nature of man, I have, in my other Book, called the soul or spirit, when speaking of the manhood, or human nature of Christ. This is scripture language, for we read of the soul of Christ both in the old and new Testaments, yet I am not so great a stickler for terms, as to contend for the phrase, soul, or spirit, as being more

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proper, than any other scripture phrase. I willingly allow each one of my brethren, any scripture phraseology to communicate his ideas, on this subject, and I only claim the same liberty; and I think I am entitled to this privilege. I have been a little at a loss, to know what word to use in this work, in speaking of the pre­existent Mediator; but as I believe that all will agree, that every living being possessed of a reasonable soul, is a man, I have concluded to use the phrase man, or human nature; but by these phrases, when I use them in speaking of the Mediator before his birth of Mary, I do not mean to include his flesh and bones, as they were after his birth, but the nature of man, in its primeval purity, without any necessary connection, with any elemental body, but in any shape or form, or in any body of a material, or immaterial kind, that which in scripture is called man, I must believe to possess the essence of man whether the body be mortal or immortal, or of what sort so ever it be; in this sense I shall now use the phrase man, and other synonymous phrases, to express the same idea. In this sense I shall attempt to prove from positive scripture, that the Mediator as man, existed long before Mary conceived her son, or before his birth of Mary. Now as I have given my views of what the essence of man is, and in what sense I shall use the phrase man, in treating on this subject, as the most familiar appellation, I hope none will be so unjust to me, or themselves, as to say that I hold that the fleshy body of Christ, as it was after its birth of Mary, pre­existed, for I have said this is not my meaning, but I think his pre­existent form, or body, was rather the same that it is since his resurrection, that is, immortal and glorious. With this much premised, and according to the above definition, I shall proceed to settle the doctrine by the word of God. I Tim. 2:5, "There is one God, and one mediator between God, and men, the man Christ Jesus. " From this text, I prove positively, that the man Christ Jesus is the mediator between God and men; then ever since there has been a mediator, between God and men, the man has existed, for the man is the mediator; and I will leave the reader to state the time when there was no mediator between God and men. John 1: 1, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. " Now this was not God with God, for saith Jehovah, "there is no God with me." Deut. 32:39. But the Word was with God, and the Word was God; that is, the Word was of two natures, divine and human. The human nature was with God, and the divine nature was God. Now the five first verses of John's gospel, and the first three verses of John's first epistle, speak of the same thing; the Word that was with God, was made flesh, according to vs. 14, and says John, speaking of that same Word which was with God, "That which was from the beginning; which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of the Word of life." Now this Word, which was from the beginning, was seen, looked upon, heard, and handled; but this same John says [in his gospel, 1: 18 & first epistle, 4:12;] "No man hath seen God at any time." Now they did see the Word which was from the beginning, which was with God, which was made flesh; they heard the Word and seen his shape, but as for God, they have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape; this Word was with God, and the Word was God,

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in the very same sense, that the Word after it was made flesh, was with God, and was God; that is, in his human nature he was with God, and in his divine nature he was God. As in the beginning, the Word was both natures; in the human nature he was with God, so he was when in this world; in his divine nature, he was God, as he was when in this world. All things were made by this Word; the divine nature was the creator, and the human nature the medium of operation, according as it is said; "all things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. " Here we see the pronoun him, refers to the Word, that was both with God, and that was God; or to both natures of the Word, as being one person, as the divine and human nature is one Christ. In the divine nature he is God, in the human nature he is with God. The works of creation are uniformly ascribed to God; but not without bringing Christ to view, as will appear by comparing the 1021x1 Psalm, beginning at the 24d1 verse, with Hebrews, chap. 1, from the 8d1 to 12d1 verse. The former place reads thus, "I said, O my God; take me not away in the midst of my days; thy years are throughout all generations. Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure; yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shall thou change them, and they shall be changed. But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end." This passage speaks of God the Creator, but in Hebrews as above cited, creation is ascribed to the Son, in almost the same words as follows: "But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever. A sceptre of righteousness [or straightness] is the sceptre of thy kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands. They shall perish, but thou remainest; and they all shall wax old as doth a garment, and as a vesture shall thou fold them up, and they shall be changed; but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail. " Now this text seems to be an apostolic quotation from the Psalm above recited, but the apostle is speaking of both natures of Christ, divine and human; as man, his God had anointed him with the oil of gladness, above his fellows; for as God he had no fellows, or if the Father, and Holy Ghost, as distinct, were his fellows, as some contend, yet the second person was not anointed above his fellows in the Trinity, for then there could be no equality between the persons in the divine Trinity, for one would be anointed above the other two, and besides this, if Christ as a divine person was before his anointing equal with the Spirit, with which he was anointed, his being anointed could be of no advantage to him, for he was equal before he was anointed with the Spirit, or oil with which he was anointed, and therefore he could receive no advantage from the anointing. The kings, and priests under the law, received qualifications superior to what they had before, from their being anointed; and by the anointing with a peculiar oil, they were qualified for their official duties, but Christ as a divine person, could receive no gifts or qualifications from the Spirit, for he was equal with it, and if so he had all the qualifications, that either the Father, or Spirit had, therefore could receive nothing from either of them, by the anointing; nor could Christ as 96a divine person, be anointed by his God, for he was God himself. But it must have been his human nature that was anointed, above his fellows as man, as priests, or as kings; and was anointed by his God, with the oil of gladness, or the divine Spirit, and here are his two natures: divine and human, as Lord the works of creation are ascribed to him, and as man, he was anointed above his fellows, and as both natures are proper to Christ, and the apostle is here showing that he is both God and man, he quotes David to prove that both natures existed in creation, as well as in Christ when he was here on earth. Psalm 110:1, "The LORD said unto my Lord, sit at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. " See how Christ himself applies this text in Mat.22:41 to 45, inclusive; "While the Pharisees were gathered, Jesus asked them, saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The son of David. He saith unto them; How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The LORD said unto my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then called him Lord, how is he his son?" This the Pharisees could not answer, nor do I see how any man can answer it yet; and deny, either the pre­existence of his human nature, or the exclusive divinity of his divine nature; for both David and Christ do make a plain distinction, the LORD that spake is in capitals, but David's Lord is not, the LORD is the divine Jehovah, and David's Lord was the Man, David's son, and both natures being in Christ; he was both David's Lord and his son; his Lord in his divine nature, and his son in his flesh; for according to the flesh our Lord sprang from David. The divine power, or God to the exclusion of all Gods beside him, and the human nature in whom he was displaying his divine power and glory, are here brought to view, in one Christ, who is both God and man, and these two natures in concurrence in him, are brought to view, in all the works of God, and in the whole of the mediation of the man Christ Jesus. Peter in his Second Epistle, 3rd chapter, speaking of scoffers that should come in the last days, [and I think I may say, many of them are already in the world,] says vs. 5, "For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water, and in the water; vs. 7, the heavens and the earth which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire, against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men." See also; Psalm 33:6, Heb.11:3, "By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the hosts of them by the breath of his mouth." "Through faith we understood the worlds were framed by the word of God." The word, in the above texts, evidently is the same Word, which John in the first chapter of his gospel and first epistle speaks of; and all seem to refer to the works of creation and providence; then let us read the history of creation, and see if the same truth does not appear; see Gen. 1:3, 6, 9, 14, 20, 24, 26, & 29. Here we find that God created the world by the medium of his word. Speech properly belongs to man, and when speech is ascribed to God, the human nature is implied, for we cannot conceive of naked divinity, without the organ of humanity, speaking to man; for in this sense, we have neither heard his voice, nor seen his shape. Here in creation God said, let there be light &c. Here was the Word of God, saying let there be light, the word went forth, and the divine

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creating power was in it, producing all things; the divinity was the creator, the Word with it, and in which it was exerted, was the man, for the Word was made flesh, and this was the very same Word, that was with God in the beginning, by which all things were created, and without him was not anything made that was made; so we find in Genesis that the word of the Lord went forth, and the divine power in this word, created all things. This is not conjecture, for here were both natures in the Word, for the word which God spoke, was the medium of operation, and God was the power operating in the word, as a medium in creation. So the truth is, if the Word was from everlasting, Christ was from everlasting, for he "was brought forth from everlasting, or ever the earth was," and this was the same word or wisdom, by which God created the worlds, and is called the Son of God. See Heb. 1:1, 2. "God who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds." Here we see, that the very Word of God, in the last times, hath spoken unto us. No man of investigation will deny, but that the human nature of Christ, was the Son, by which God spake to the apostles, and it was the same Son, that was appointed heir of all things, by whom also he created the worlds. The divine nature of Christ, distinct from the human nature, was not appointed heir of all things, for they were all his without appointment, for they were his by right of creation, not by the appointment of another, making him heir; neither did God create the worlds by the divinity of Christ, or by Christ as God; for in this sense Christ was the creator, and not the instrument by which God did create. As Christ said, "the words which I speak unto you, I speak not of myself, but the Father which hath sent me, he doeth the works." The works of creation, are always ascribed to God or to Christ as God, but they were created by the Son, who was heir by divine appointment, by whom God created the worlds, and by whom he spake to the apostles in these last times; so if the human nature was the Man or Son, by whom God spake to us in these last times, the human nature was the Son, by whom God created the worlds and who was appointed heir of all things. Then so sure as God did create the worlds by Jesus Christ, so sure Christ existed when the worlds were made; and as sure as Christ is heir of all things by appointment; so sure his human nature is intended, for his divine nature was not dependent on any appointment to make him heir, for, " the earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof. " The terms Word, Wisdom, Voice, Breath, &c., in the Old Testament, are used in the same sense, that the terms Jesus, Christ, Son, Son of man, Son of God, &c. are used in the new Testament; and almost a constant interchange of these terms is kept up through the inspired volume; John says, "the Word was with God;" Solomon in speaking of the same, uses the appellation Wisdom, and says in Prov. 8:30, "Then I was by him, as one brought up with him." The Word was with God, and so was the wisdom, by and with him. They are evidently no more, than two names for the same thing; and Christ is intended; but not his divine nature, that is, not Christ as God, for God says; there is no God with him, but this word, or wisdom, was with God; therefore, this word or wisdom, [in the nature and sense that he was with God,] 98was not God, but the divine power of the Word, and of the wisdom, was God. So while the Word, and wisdom, is God in the divine nature, they are with God in the human nature, and both natures must be understood, or a contradiction is unavoidable. Speaking of this same Word or wisdom, Moses says, Gen. 3:8, " And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day. " vs. 9, " And the Lord God called unto Adam; and said unto him, where art thou?" This shows the distinction, the voice of the Lord God was heard walking in the garden, and the Lord God called unto Adam. Here God was in the voice, as he was in his word, in the above case. This word, wisdom, or voice, is called breath, Psalm 33: 6, "By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the hosts of them by the breath of his mouth. " Surely we can see a distinction between the Lord, and the breath of the Lord's mouth, but the breath of his mouth, was that by which he made all the hosts of heaven. This breath is called wisdom, Psalm 136:5, "To him that by wisdom made the heavens;" &c. This wisdom is called the word of God, Heb. 11:3, "The worlds were made by the word of God." Now nothing is more evident, than that these several appellations, are used for the same thing, and that the vehicle through which God exercised his power in creation, was intended, and that vehicle was Jesus Christ, as we have showed above, not his divine nature, for as God, he was the creator, but his human nature was the medium in creation, for in his human nature he was God’s Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom he made the worlds

Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 8 Of Free Justification, By the Blood and Righteousness of Christ.

Justification is one of the most important points of doctrine in the whole system of the christian theology. It embraces in it the four following considerations: First: The Judge who justifieth. Secondly: The character of those who are justified. Thirdly: The principles upon which the Judge proceeds in justifying. Fourthly: The evidences by which we are brought to know our justification. To these four general propositions I shall call the attention of the reader in the following discourse. First: The Judge who justifieth. "It is God that justifieth. " Rom.8:33, 3:30, Isa.50:8,9. In all these places God is spoken of as the Supreme Judge in the court of heaven; deciding on the case of his people, and pronouncing their justification. The word justify, or justification, is a forensic term, and is used in judicial affairs in a court of justice. It does not mean an inward cleansing, but a legal, that is, a just and lawful proceeding of a judge, adjudging one to life. Justification is the opposite of condemnation, and I perfectly agree with Dr. 99Gill, when he says, "The word justify is never used in a physical sense for producing any real internal change in men, but in a forensic sense, and stands opposed, not to a state of impurity and unholiness, but to a state of condemnation; it is a law term, and used of judicial affairs, transacted in a court of judicature; see Deut.25:1, Prov.17:15, Isa.5:22, Matt. 12:37, where justification stands opposed to condemnation; and this is the sense of the word whenever it is used in the doctrine under consideration; so in Job 9:2,3, and 25:4; so by David; Psalms 143:2, and in Paul's epistles, where the doctrine of justification is treated of, respect is had to courts of judicature, and to a judicial process in them; men are represented as sinners, charged with sin, and pronounced guilty before God, and subject to condemnation and death; when, according to this evangelic doctrine, they are justified by the obedience and blood of Christ, cleared of all charges, acquitted and absolved, and freed from condemnation and death, and adjudged to eternal life; see Rom.3:9,19 & 5:16,18,19 & 8:1,33,34, Gal.2:16,17, Tit.3:7." Evangelic justification is not the work of the Spirit of God on the heart of the sinner, implanting life in, and quickening the soul, but the work of God as a judge on a throne of justice, deciding on, and adjudging one to life, according to law and justice. It is not the infusing of righteousness, nor a purging out of the inward evils of the heart, but the pronouncing of one's justification with reference to the charge preferred against him. I wish the reader to understand distinctly that Justification is an external act of God as a judge, acting in a court of justice, on the case of the sinner, and not the internal work of the Spirit on the heart. Thus God as the supreme judge of heaven and earth, acting upon the principles of justice, according to his most holy law, justifieth "the ungodly;" not because they have been renewed by the Spirit, nor because they have been washed with water by the word, nor because they have repented and believed the gospel, nor because of any other evangelical obedience of theirs, or inward work of the Spirit, but because of the obedience and blood of Christ, as saith the apostle, Rom.8:33,34, "Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth. Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. " As God, who is the judge of all the earth will do right, and is just while he justifieth the ungodly, and these ungodly ones are justified as the elect of God, and because of the death of Christ, and so complete, that the apostle could challenge all opposers to lay anything to their charge, and declare, Acts 13:39, that they "are justified from all things." We shall consider, Secondly: The character of those who are justified. We have seen already that they are the ungodly and God' s elect; and that God as the judge justifies the elect, so that none can lay anything to their charge, and yet they are called ungodly. The character of God' s elect is set forth in scripture in two points of light; 1st, as they are in themselves, and in relation to Adam, their earthly head and progenitor, and 2nd, as they are in the sight of God as his elect, in Christ their 100

spiritual head, in whom they were chosen, and by whom they were represented. In the first of these views they are spoken of as being condemned to death, and every charge may be justly preferred against them that can be brought against any other sinner; but in the last view they are spoken of as being justified and absolved from every charge, and adjudged to life. In the first Adam there is no discrimination of elect and non­elect, but all his natural posterity without exception are considered in a condemned state, under guilt and the sentence of death, by virtue of the offence of the first Adam, who acted for all his then unborn race; but in Christ the second Adam, all his elect seed are considered in a justified state, by virtue of the obedience of Christ, who acted for his unborn elect spiritual seed. These two Adams are spoken of as the only two men who represented mankind; and Paul runs these as parallel in order to show both the condemnation of the world and the justification of the elect; see Romans, the 5th chapter. In relation to Adam, the whole human family is condemned to death, and the sentence is gone forth, "Thou shalt surely die. " "Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned." By this original sin, condemnation unto death came upon all mankind; see Rom.5:13, "By the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation. " This offence armed death with power, and commissioned it to reign over the whole posterity of Adam, according to Rom. 5:17, "By one man's offence death reigned by one. " So we see from plain scripture language; that by the offence of Adam sin commenced its reign; and reigns unto death, agreeably to Rom. 5:21. We judge of the magnitude of a crime by the penalty which the law under which it is committed annexes to it. Death is the greatest possible penalty; the basest and most aggravated crime can be punished with no greater punishment. We are all exposed to death as the penalty annexed to the offence of Adam; our first earthly head and progenitor; therefore we judge this to be a crime of the greatest atrocity. By this one offence the whole race of Adam have become condemned under the reign of sin, and the sentence of death, and are now naturally and mentally opposite to all good, and inclined to all evil. All men, therefore, without any distinction of elect or non­elect, as they stand related to Adam in his offence, are children of wrath, the servants of sin, the subjects of death, and stand as condemned criminals, under the just sentence of the just law of a holy God, who will by no means clear the guilty. In this state of guilt and condemnation the whole human family lies, indisposed towards God, unreconciled to his law, opposed to his gospel, and disaffected to his government, enslaved to their own discordant passions, they hate the light, and love darkness; and choose the way to death, and under the influence of an infernal infatuation; are rendered inflexible to every power but that which is irresistible. I shall make no distinction here between the moral and physical powers of man, for the physical actions of men are under the dictation and government of the moral disposition; and until the latter be rectified by the Spirit of God, the former will always be averse to real good. In this fallen condemned state where sin has placed us, it is impossible that we should ever be justified by our own good works. If all our powers, both moral and physical,

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were restored to their best state before the fall, we could never obtain justification by the exercise of them, for by the deeds of the law shall no flesh be justified. We are condemned already, judgment has come upon all men unto condemnation, and when condemnation unto death has past upon an offender, for a crime which he has previously committed, no works which he may afterwards perform will ever clear him from the former sentence of condemnation, which still stands in full force against the criminal. We are already condemned, condemned to death by a just and holy law, for a capital offence, and future acts of obedience will never justify us, be they performed ever so promptly; nay, if our whole nature were renewed, and made as pure as Adam’s was before the fall, and we were to live clear of all sin, to the age of Methuselah, we should yet be condemned; for when we have done all, we are unprofitable servants, we have done no more than our duty and being previously condemned to death, this sentence would still stand against us. Before a law is transgressed, it can only require obedience of those who are under it, but after it is transgressed and its sentence of condemnation unto death has passed upon the transgressor, nothing less than the penalty will satisfy it. The natural obligations which men were under before the fall to love and serve God and to obey and worship him, &c. , are in no sense relaxed by his indisposition to perform them, but men manifest the moral turpitude of their hearts by a habitual course of unreasonable rebellion against God. They love to walk in gaudy show, with impious lips, a deceitful tongue, feet that are swift to shed blood, an inexorable heart, that is deceitful and desperately wicked above all things, and no fear of God before their eyes. This is a faint representation of fallen men; eternity before, hell yawning with hideous and gloomy voracity to receive him at his arrival, while satanic influence impels the willing captive down the dreadful dreary way that leads to the dark domain of eternal despair and remediless woe. Should angels stand aghast, and weep in tears of blood, should all the cattle of a thousand hills pour forth their blood, should rivers fill their channels with costly oil, and infants yield their lives in sacrifice for sin; all these could never revoke the sentence of the law. Man has sinned and man must die! If wit and reason fail, angelic sympathy and blood of lambs and bullocks with all the works of men can never weigh one groat in the scale of our justification. I cry, O propitious heaven, is there no gracious volume in thy salubrious clime to grant one ray of hope to fallen man? This is the character of those whom God justifies, when they are considered as they are in their fallen state, and in relation to the first Adam; and in this relation they are condemned, and no work or sacrifice that either we or Adam can perform, will ever remove the curse or make us just with God. If we are not in a relation to the second Adam, justification is impossible, for we have neither power or merit to justify ourselves, and as I observed above, God's elect have two distinct standings, one in the first Adam, by which they with the rest of the world have fallen under condemnation unto death, and can never be justified by any work or sacrifice in the power of Adam or themselves; and another in Christ the second Adam, in and by whom alone justification is possible to any of the fallen race. This we shall further illustrate, while we consider,

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Thirdly: The principles upon which the Judge proceeds in justifying. We have showed above, that justification is a law term, and is always used in scripture in a forensic sense, not for an inward cleansing, nor in opposition to a state of defilement, but for the act of a judge in the court of justice, and in opposition to a state of condemnation. The law and justice is the rule by which the judge proceeds, either to condemn, or justify the accused. If the prosecution be brought legally against the offender, and the crime alleged be sufficiently proven, it becomes the duty of the judge to pronounce the sentence of condemnation and death upon the accused, and to appoint the time of execution, but if the proof should go to clear the accused, it becomes the duty of the judge to pronounce the justification of the accused. The law will not allow the judge to clear the guilty, on account of his repentance, reformation, tears, fair promises, or any change that may be effected in the man accused after the commission of an offence. Now considering God as a judge in the court of heaven, man the accused, his guilt proven before the judge by ten thousand witnesses arising from the heart, and demonstrating it to be deceitful and desperately wicked above all things; full of murder, revenge, enmity , hatred, and every evil work; and the law says, "Thou shalt surely die. " God will not justify these rebels, unless it can be done in the strict administration of justice; for David says, Psal.9:8, "He shall judge the world in righteousness, he shall minister judgment to the people in uprightness. " See Gen.18:25, "Shall not the judge of all the earth do right?" Exod.34:7, "He will by no means clear the guilty." Deut.7:10, "He will not be slack to him that hateth him, he will repay him to his face. " Deut.32:4, "He is the Rock, his work is perfect; for all his ways are judgment; a God of truth, and without iniquity , just and right is he. " From all these passages and many others, we are taught, that as a judge God will administer strict justice; therefore in relation to the first Adam, and in ourselves considered, we shall never be justified, and if the judge proceeds with us in this relation, we are in a hopeless situation, for in this relation "judgment has come upon all men to condemnation. " The scriptures present to us the blood and righteousness of Christ as our only justification; and this righteousness is declared, that God as judge might be just in the justifying of the sinner. See Rom.3:26,27,28. As condemnation has come upon all men, by virtue of their federal relation to the first Adam, so justification can only come upon any of the human race by a federal relation with Christ the second Adam; and so justification is always taught in relation to Christ, and unless we are related to him as our righteousness, we shall never be justified; for that is all the righteousness which the law will ever be satisfied with, and God will never justify a sinner in any other way than in relation to Christ, and that relation must be such that God as a just and equitable judge, in the ministration of justice, can act upon, and the law can recognize, so as to justify the sinner by the righteousness of Christ, as if it were a righteousness which the sinner had of himself. See Rom.5:18,19, "By the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. " The law is satisfied, God justifies and is just in so doing, and none can condemn the soul which is in Jesus Christ; and so Paul says, Rom.8:1, "There is therefore now no condemnation to them which

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are in Christ Jesus; " and this being in Christ Jesus, is according to election, as the 33rd verse shows, where the apostle speaks of the same people, to whom there is no condemnation, and asks in a way of defiance, "Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect?" In Christ they stand, as the elect of God, in a relation to him as their righteousness. I Cor. 1: 30, "But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom and righteousness; " and so it is said, I Cor. 6:11, "Ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus." II Cor. 5:21, "For he bath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. " From the above scriptures with many others, it is positively declared, that the elect are in Christ, and being in him by the choice of God, they are made the righteousness of God in him; he is the end of the law for righteousness to them, and so they are justified in his name. Justification is not an act of the creature; nor does it depend on the knowledge of the creature, but it is the act of the judge, and bears date from the time the judge decides on the case. God decided on the case of all his elect before all worlds, and chose them in Christ, and in his decision gave them every spiritual blessing in him, before the foundation of the world; and therefore, their sins were laid on Christ, Isaiah 53:6, and God will not impute their sins to them, and these are they of whom David said, [psal.32: 1,2,] "Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered. Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity." Compare with Rom. 4:7,8; II Cor. 5:19; John 1:47. God will not impute sin to his elect, because he has laid their iniquities upon Christ, and so they are blessed, for he bears their iniquities, and they are clothed with his righteousness, according to Isaiah 61: 10, "He bath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with a robe of righteousness." Jeremiah saw into this, and said of Christ, Je. 23:6, "This is the name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. " Our iniquities being laid on Christ, and not on us, he must bear them, and so it devolved on him "to finish the transgression and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness. " According to Dan. 9:21, and Isa. 54:17, "Their righteousness is of me, saith the Lord." In agreement with the above texts, we read in Num. 23:21, "He [God] hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, neither hath he seen perverseness in Israel. " Now from the scriptures above cited, with the whole Bible, it is plainly taught that God did lay the iniquities of his people on Christ, and therefore will not impute sin to his people nor did he ever behold iniquity in Jacob, nor perverseness in Israel, but has decided as judge in the court of heaven, that their iniquities shall lay upon Christ and be executed on him and not on them. Therefore, "by his stripes we are healed, " for "he was [according to this decision] delivered for our offences, and raised again for our justification," according to Rom. 4:35. Now I have always thought that when the judge officially decided on the case of any man or number of men, and decided on their justification or condemnation, that the date of such decision is the date of the thing decided on. If so, when the reader will tell me, the date of God's decision on the case of Christ's suffering, and his church's justification thereby; I will set the same

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date to their justification; for justification is the act of the judge, in thus deciding on their case; and this he did, when he laid our iniquities on Christ, and determined never to impute sin to his people; and therefore Christ was sentenced to death, and regarded [by virtue of this sentence] as a lamb slain from the foundation of the world, and that for the elect, and all this decided on by the judge, and recorded in the record of heaven's court; see Rev. 13:8, 17:8, and also Heb. 10:7 ,9, Psalm 40:6,7,8, from which we see that the sentence had gone forth against Christ, and this sentence was written in God's book or heaven's record, and that record not only contained the sentence against Christ, but the names of those in whose behalf he was sentenced to be slain; and so to them it was the book of life, because justification unto life was therein adjudged or recorded to them, but sacrifice and death was written against Christ, because our sins were adjudged to him, and he sentenced to death for them, and the very hour appointed for his execution, as he says, John 12:23, 17:1, "The hour is come," and the malice of men and devils could not take him any sooner; see John 7:30, 44, "No man laid hands on him, for his hour was not yet come;" but when the appointed hour for him to suffer was come, he says, John 12:27, "Now is my soul troubled, and what shall I say? Father save me from this hour; but for this cause came I unto this hour. Father glorify thy name. " This was the hour which God had set for the execution of Christ when he was sentenced to death for the iniquities of his people, which God had laid upon him, and therefore would not impute sin to them, nor behold iniquity or perverseness in them, but recorded their names in the book of life, and that from the foundation of the world. And so Paul says, Rom. 8:1, "There is therefore, now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus; " for his righteousness is declared [see Rom. 3:26] that God might be just in the justification of the sinner, therefore, Paul believed that justification had come upon all God's elect in the past tense, as he says, Rom.5:18,19, and so he speaks chap.3:24, "Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ." Now if justification be a forensic term­­and if it is used in a judicial sense­­ and is to be understood of the act of a judge adjudging one to life­­and God be understood as the judge, then ever since he adjudged the elect to life, by virtue of their sins being laid on Christ and not imputed to them, they have been justified; for the judge has acted and decided on their case, and placed their names in the book of life. The apostle breaks forth into an ecstasy in viewing this exhilarating truth, and says, Eph. l:3, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places [or things] in Christ. " Justification is a spiritual blessing, and if we were blessed with all spiritual blessings in Christ, we were blessed with this among other blessings, and these blessings were not in consequence of our faith and repentance, but according to election before all worlds, as the next verse says, " According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world; " and the consequent effect of these blessings being according to this early choice is, "that we should

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be holy and without blame before him in love; " and if our being holy and without blame before God, is according, not to our faith, but to our election before the foundation of the world; so our justification must be; for if I be holy and without blame before God the judge, I am in a justified state, because holy and without blame before him in love. The love of God, or his grace, which chose his people in Christ before the world, and blessed them with all spiritual blessings, gave them such a relation to him, and standing in him, that when God views them in Christ, according to this choice and these blessings, they are holy and without blame before him, and so they are "justified freely by his grace." God viewed them without blame before him, [verse 5,] "Having predestinated us to the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will. " According to the good pleasure of his will, he chose us in Christ before the foundation of the world, and according to the same good pleasure of his will he laid our iniquities on Christ, and consequently will not impute sin to his people, but gives them all spiritual blessings, and having laid their iniquities on Christ, he has not beheld iniquity in Jacob, nor perverseness in Israel; but they are holy and without blame before him in his love. Now as all this is in Christ in whom they were chosen, blessed with all spiritual blessings, and regarded as being holy and without blame, so it is in him that God views them when he pronounces their justification; and as God had chosen them in him before the foundation of the world, and gave them all spiritual blessings in him according to that choice, so that in him considered they were holy, and without blame before God; and all this was in Christ, and before they had any knowledge of it, or sensible participation in it, they were secured to the sensible enjoyment of it by the grace of predestination, or the preordination of God, and all this was by Jesus Christ; see verses 5, 6, "Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children, by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. " Here in the grace of election we are chosen in Christ, and accordingly blessed with all spiritual blessings, [and justification is one] and to secure us to the sensible enjoyment of these blessings, God has predestinated us to the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, and according to this glorious grace, and in it he hath made us accepted in the beloved; that is, in the electing and predestinating grace of God, we are accepted in Christ, and in him considered, we are holy and without blame before God in love, and all this to the praise of the glory of his electing and predestinating grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. God the judge views us holy and without blame before him, on account of our iniquities being laid on Christ and not on us, and so we being in him by election, we are blessed with eternal redemption, and our sins being laid on him, they are forgiven to us, or not imputed to us; see verse 2, "In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins according to the riches of his grace. " O what rich grace this is, all spiritual blessings are made ours by it, and in it God hath abounded in all spiritual blessings to his chosen people; see verse 8, "Wherein he hath abounded toward us, in all wisdom and prudence." Every revelation of grace made to us is only a

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blessed consequence of this rich electing and predestinating grace, according to verses 9,10,11,12. "Having made known unto us the mystery of his will according to his good pleasure, which he hath purposed in himself, that in the dispensation of the fullness of times, he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth, even in him; in whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will; that we should be to the praise of his glory who first trusted in Christ. " Some of my brethren understand all this to be only a decree to justify, that is, they think God has determined that he will at some future time, justify the elect, but that they are always condemned until they are renewed by the Spirit, and brought to act faith on Christ, and then by their faith, as an act of reliance on him, the judge acts in their justification, and justifies them because they have believed in Christ. This is what I oppose, for if God proceeds to justify the sinner because he believes in Christ, it is faith as an acts of ours, and not the blood and righteousness of Christ which is the cause of our justification; but the scripture everywhere teaches us, that as a judge God justifies us, because Christ died for us, or because our sins were laid on him, and not because we believed it. Faith is an evidence of justification, and not the cause of it. If a judge should determine or decree beforehand to justify any man who should be brought before him, would not this predetermination disqualify such a judge to act on such a case? But if justification be an eminent act of God, passing upon the whole body of the elect in Christ, and by virtue of this act the sentence of death was passed upon Christ, and he regarded as slain for us, so we being made accepted in the beloved, are looked at by the judge as being holy and without blame before him. The pardon of sin is very different from justification; the former is forgiving the guilty but the latter is declaring one guiltless according to law. {*Pardon of sin respects us as sinners in our fallen state, and was obtained for us by Christ before he rose from the dead; we are sinners, and forgiveness or non­ imputation views us such, and to us as guilty in ourselves, and self­ condemned, the grace of pardon or non­imputation is revealed to us by the Spirit, when we are brought to experience an application of the blood of Christ. Justification passes upon the elect by virtue of their sins being laid on Christ and not on them; and so they are justified as if they were innocent, and had never sinned; but pardon is a grace bestowed on them as sinners in themselves, and God freely forgives them through the redemption, which is in Christ Jesus. We are justified because we are holy and without blame before God; but as sinners before God we are pardoned and forgiven, through the interposition of Christ, and so while we rejoice that God will not impute sin to us, yet we are humbled under the sense of our being great sinners, to whom much is forgiven.} We can only be justified by the judge; because we are without blame before him; and we can only appear without blame before him in the beloved; in whom we were chosen, before the foundation of the world; and being thus chosen in him, our case was decided on, and our names were

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written in the book of life, according to Rev.17:8, "The beast that thou sawest, was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition; and they that dwell on the earth sha11 wonder [whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world] when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is." These names were written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, and therefore they were justified to life or else their names would not have been written in the book of life; and he who wrote their names in the book, did it because Christ was sentenced to death for them, in agreement with Rev.13:8, " And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him [the beast] whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. " Here the book of life, in which the names of God's people were written from the foundation of the world, is called the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world; from which we are taught, that our names were written in the book of life, at the same time that God decided on our case, and sentenced Christ to death, and us to life by him; and so our names were written in the book of life, and he was condemned to the slaughter at the same time, according to Psalm 40:7, "Then said I, 10, I come; in the volume of the book it is written of me." The speaker in this text is Christ, according to Heb.10:7, 8, 9, 10, where the same words are expressed and explained. Both David and Paul speak of God' s book, where the offering of the body of Christ was written, and as both of these writers refer to such a book, and the book of life being the book of the Lamb slain, in which his death was recorded; David and Paul no doubt referred to this book when they quote the words of the above texts from the book where these things were written of him. Nor were the names of the believers alone, all that were written in this book of life, but all the mystical body of Christ, whether born or unborn, were written in this book from the foundation of the world; see Psa. 139:16, "Thine eyes did see my substance, [or body] yet being unperfect, and in thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them. " And these whose names were written in the book of life, are they who shall finally be saved, according to Rev. 20:12,13,14,15," And whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire." Now from all the above scriptures, the following facts are deducible and unquestionable. 1st. We [the elect] were chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world. 2nd. God made them accepted in the beloved, and gave them all spiritual blessings in him [justification among the rest] according to his choice. 3rd. Those who were thus chosen in Christ were his sheep, and when they went astray, their iniquities were laid on him, and not on them, and God as the supreme judge pronounced the sentence of death on him, and recorded it in his book, and adjudged them to life, and recorded their names in the book of life from the foundation of the world. 4th. The judge having thus decided the case, and all the sins of his elect being laid on Christ, he will never impute sin to the elect, nor behold iniquity in Jacob, nor perverseness in Israel, but they stand

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holy and without blame before him. 5th. In consequence of this irrevocable decision, the hour is set for Christ to be executed; and the elect are predestinated to life. 6th. As our sins were laid on Christ and not on us, so he was executed for them, and not us; and so we are justified by his blood from all things. Hitherto I have been speaking of justification as an official act of God as judge; sitting on the case of his elect, and deciding on their justification, and the death of Christ in their stead, and as I have fully proved from the positive declarations of scripture, that God did lay their iniquities on Christ, and declared them to be holy and without blame before him in love, and so their names were written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, and he adjudged to the slaughter from the same time, and the hour set for his execution, according to the determined counsel [or decision] and foreknowledge of God. It only now remains for me to show the justice of God as a judge in thus deciding the case, since Christ was innocent, and we were guilty; and yet he was condemned and we justified in the decision of the judge. Election gave us a standing in Christ, and a relation to him which will fully justify all the ways of God to man; and we have above proved from scripture, that God did choose his people in Christ before the foundation of the world, and of course they were in relation to him, ever since they were chosen in him; and he is their head, and they are his members, and this doctrine is taught in the following manner: Rom. 12:4,5, "As we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office; so we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another." I Cor. 10:17, "For we, being many, are one bread, and one body." I Cor. 12:20, "But now are they many members, yet but one body." Verse 12, "For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ." Eph. 1:22, 23, "Who gave him to be the head over all things to the church, which is his body, the fullness of him that filleth all in all. " These many members that make but one body, are the members spoken of in the 1391h Psalm, 161h verse; and these many members make the church or mystical body of Christ, and these are they whose iniquities were laid on Christ, and for whom he was slain, by which they were redeemed or purchased; see I Cor. 6:19,20, "Ye are not your own; for ye are bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's." Chap. 7:23. "Ye are bought with a price." Gal. 1:4. "Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world according to the will of God, and our Father." See chap. 2:20, Eph. 5, from verse 22 to the close. Rom. 6:7­ 11, all of which prove beyond a doubt the existence of an union between Christ and his church. This union or relation existed before we believe, nay before Christ died, for he loved the church, and gave himself for it, Eph. 5:25,26,27; not that he might have it, but that he might present it a glorious church. Now as the law will justify a judge in passing the sentence on the head, for

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the offence of the members of the body, so Christ the head of the church was sentenced for the offence of his offending members, and in this the justice of God appears in laying our sins on Christ. This union or relation is illustrated in scripture by the union subsisting between the husband and wife. The church is called the bride, the Lamb's wife, Rev. 21:9, chap. 19:7, and Christ is often called [in relation to his church] a bridegroom; and the apostle treats the subject in the following manner. I Cor. 11:3, "1 would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman, is the man; and the head of Christ is God." Eph. 5:23, "For the husband is the head of the wife; even as Christ is the head of the church; and he is the saviour of the body. " "For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh; this is a great mystery, but I speak concerning Christ and his church. " Now the union between the husband and wife is such, that the husband must satisfy the debts contracted by the wife; for the law demands it of him by virtue of the relation above demonstrated; so Christ must pay the contract of the church, which is his wife, and so God is just in laying her iniquities to him, and not to her, for he is her living husband. This relation is illustrated by the prophet, and by Christ himself, by the figure of the shepherd and the sheep, which are in a relation to each other, so that the shepherd, if he be the owner of the sheep, must be accountable for any damage done by the sheep. Christ shows that he is not only the shepherd but the real owner of the sheep, John 10:11,14,15; and many of his sheep were then in unbelief, see verse 16; and he will pay for all their trespasses, even if it costs him his life. This is what the prophet says, Isa .53:6, " All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all." The sheep is the property of the shepherd, and he must in law answer for them. If I be the proper owner of a flock of sheep, and they should unlawfully break in and kill your orchard, would you bring suit against the sheep, and bring them as transgressors into court; or would you not rather bring suit against me, as the shepherd and owner of the offending sheep; and I must pay the damage, be it great or small; so Christ being the shepherd and owner of the sheep, is proceeded against in a legal way, and the Lord as a judge, lays the iniquity of the sheep to the shepherd, and assesses the damage to be the death of the shepherd; and so the sword must slumber, until the shepherd comes to the hour set for his execution, and then awake and smite the shepherd, who had been sentenced for the sheep, according to Zech. 13:7, "Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts; smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered; and I will turn my hand upon the little ones. " So Christ says, "I lay down my life for the sheep." As he was prosecuted and executed as the shepherd of his sheep, and suffered for and under the iniquities of his sheep, so he is brought as a Iamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before his shearers, is dumb, so he opened not his mouth." Isa. 53:7. As Christ was the shepherd, so the sheep were God's elect people; see verse 8, "For

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the transgressions of my people was he stricken," or was the stroke upon him. Various are the figures employed in the scriptures to illustrate this gracious union; such as the vine and branches, a king and subjects, &c. Time would fail me to enter largely into this glorious grace, but from the scriptures already adduced on the relation between Christ and his people, the bond of which is love, this one point is established, that Christ and his church are in such a relation as to show how God is just in laying their iniquities to him, and justifying them by virtue of his blood. We have hitherto showed that the elect of God and church of Christ have two distinct standings, one in Adam, and one in Christ; that in Adam they are condemned to death, and so must remain; but in Christ they are holy and without blame before God. And so Adam was a figure of him that was to come; and these are the two heads. Condemnation came by the first, and justification came by the second. We feel under condemnation by the offence of the first, but we enjoy justification by the obedience of the second. The fifth chapter of Romans shows these two Adams acting for their respective seeds, with these different effects, on their seeds; by the one came condemnation unto death, on all his seed, but by the other came justification unto life and all his seed, &c. Now as we have showed the principles upon which God as a judge proceeded to pass the sentence of death on Christ, and acquit the church, and so he must die and they must live thereby; so he came to the very hour appointed, and suffered and died for our sins; according to the scriptures he bare our sins in his own body on the tree; according to the sentence of the judge, he was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification. As I have proved above, by positive scripture, that God will not impute sin to his people, having laid them on Christ, and that he is consequently regarded in the decision of God as a Lamb slain from the foundation of the world, and their names written from the same period in the book of life. So when he was actually slain they were actually justified, for by the obedience of one man the free gift has come upon all men [that is, the elect of all nations] unto justification of life. Just in the very same sense that the church was chosen in Christ before the world was, they were viewed in him without blame, and as his elect, he will behold no spot in them; this I sometimes call a virtual justification, and the enemies of the doctrine call it eternal justification, and then commence a war with the name, and make a wonderful ado about the name. Well the truth will have its enemies, and they may give it all the hard names they please. I will not pretend to justify the term, eternal justification, but the doctrine which is generally buffeted under that name I esteem as a most precious truth, big with comfort to my poor soul, which I think could never be saved without it. As God had decided on the justification of the elect by the death of Christ, so our justification is often ascribed to his blood; it is said Rom. 3:24, "Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ." So we see that we are justified by the grace of God as a judge, and that grace flows to us

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through the redemption that is in Christ; that is, when God freely adjudged us to life, and wrote our names in the book of life, he acted on the case, viewing us in relation to Christ, and through the redemption that is in him, he is just in the decision of our justification; as it is said, verse 26, "To declare I say, at this time his righteousness, that he might be just, and the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus; " that is to say, the righteousness of Christ, or his standing related to his church, as the end of the law for righteousness to her, God is just as a judge in justifying the church by the satisfaction made, or rendered to it by her head and husband. Now we plainly see, that the sentence of death due to our offences, was executed on Christ according to God's determined purpose, and we are consequently justified thereby, in a way of justice. Christ bare the sins of many, and when he died for us, and suffered for our sins as a public head, acting and dying as the representative of many, his death is regarded as the death of all for whom he died, and this is what we read, n Cor. 5:14,15, "For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge that if one died for all, then were all dead; and that he died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them, and rose again." As our sins were laid on Christ and we were in him by election, so he came to die in our stead, and when he died for us, it was the same in the eye of the law as if all his members had then died, and so Paul said, Gal .2:20, "I am crucified with Christ; " and Rom. 6:8, "Now if we be dead with Christ," &c., chap. 7:4, "Ye are become dead to the law by the body of Christ." From all of which it is plain that when Christ died for us, we were regarded as dead, or his death was looked upon as if it were the death of all he represented; for he died, not as a private individual; but as the public head and representative of all his members, and so when he, though but one; died for them all; the love of Christ constrains us to judge that they were all dead by him. So when he rose from the dead he rose for our justification, and as he died in relation to the elect, so he rose in relation to them, and so it is said of him. Rom. 4:25, "Who was delivered for our offences and was raised again for our justification. "We being thus interested in his resurrection as our representative, we are spoken of as rising with him; see Isa. 26:19, "Thy dead men shall live together with my dead body shall they arise." Hos. 6:2, " After two days will he revive us, in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight." The sentence of God had gone forth against Christ, as in Isa. 53:11, "By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many, for he shall bear their iniquities," and according to this sentence it devolved on Christ to make an end of sin, according to Dan. 9:24, and so there was a must needs be, for Christ to suffer and rise again; in proof of this, see Acts 17:2, 3, "And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them, and three sabbath­days reasoned with them out of the scriptures, opening and alleging that Christ must needs have suffered, and risen again from the dead." Luke 24:26,46, from which it appears plain, that Christ was under the strongest obligation to die for his church; yet he suffered freely and willingly; he was under obligation as the sentence of death had passed upon him, as the head, husband, and shepherd of his people, but he willingly and voluntarily stood in this relation, and so while he loved the church and freely

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gave himself for it, the law demanded his life, and he must suffer. So while his willingness to suffer for us, shows his grace and love to us, it is the obligation he is under to suffer that shows the justice of his suffering; and so both grace and justice shines with equal lustre in our free justification; and so we are justified by grace as a free gift, for it is said, Rom. 5:16, "The free gift is of many offences unto justification;" yet though justification is a free gift, it comes to us through and by the blood of Christ, which he shed to satisfy the sentence of the law, which was justly executed on him, as the head of the church; see verse 9. Now I have said above, that when Christ actually suffered for our sins, we were actually justified, and this is true, according to Rom. 5:18, "As by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation, even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life." The sentence of condemnation and death actually came upon all Adam's unborn seed, when he offended, and so they are heirs to corruption, condemnation and death, and as they are born by a natural birth, they begin to feel the weight of this sentence, and mortality. So when Christ the second Adam, fulfilled the law, put away our sins, finished transgression, and brought in everlasting righteousness, all his unborn spiritual seed were actually justified, because the sentence of God was actually executed on him in our stead, and all our sins were put away by the sacrifice of himself; and the law was satisfied to the full; and so he was raised for our justification, and we were justified by his blood; so justification is not a consequence of faith, as an act of the creature, but a consequence of the death of Christ , or in other words, justification is the decision of a judge, adjudging one to life. God adjudged us to life, because all our sins were imputed to Christ, and on this account he never did view iniquity in Jacob, nor perverseness in Israel, and will not impute sin to his elect, but all their iniquities being laid on Christ, the sentence of death due to their offences was executed upon him, and the justification due to his righteousness was given to them; and now the gospel reveals this righteousness to faith, and faith is an evidence to the soul, of his free justification. This brings me to speak, Fourthly: Of the evidences by which we are brought to know our justification. The prisoner in the dungeon can only know that he is justified by the judge in court by some messenger, who may be sent to him, with the tidings of it; and however long he may disbelieve the message, it cannot make it untrue, because the fact does not depend for its truth upon the prisoner's faith, but is a truth before he believes it, as certainly as afterwards, and his faith adds nothing to the truth of the fact, but only to his comfort in the enjoyment of a knowledge of the fact. So Justification is a fact before faith, and faith adds nothing to it, but only believes the fact as it is declared to it in the gospel. Rom. 1:17, "For therein [in the gospel] is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith. " This righteousness is our justification, faith is the eye to which it is revealed, and 113

the gospel brings it to view; thus the gospel is called the word of faith, Rom. 10:8; and faith cometh by hearing this word; see verse 17, "So then, faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." The gospel is sent to men as sinners, lying in the ruins of the first Adam, lost and condemned under the sentence of death; and proclaims and reveals the righteousness of Christ, as the justification of the ungodly; but no eye but that of faith can see it, and on this account many are ignorant of the righteousness of God, and are going about to establish their own righteousness, and because faith is the eye to which this righteousness is revealed, it is called the righteousness of faith, Rom.10:6, and this righteousness is manifested, and the law and prophets attest it to be faultless; and warrants the faith of the sinner to trust in it. Rom. 3:31,22, "Now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all, and upon all them that believe, for there is no difference." This righteousness is of God, and we see it by faith, according to Phil. 3:9, where Paul desires above all things, "to be found in him, not having mine own righteousness which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith." Now this righteousness alone is our justification; and it is revealed or manifested to faith, well proved by the law and the prophets; therefore faith may safely venture on it. A word on faith; faith is a fruit of the Spirit, Gal. 5 :22, and so the spirit is called the spirit of faith, because we have no true faith, without it; see II Cor. 4:13, "We having the same spirit of faith," &c. This faith is peculiar to God's elect, Tit. 1:1, because the gospel by which faith cometh and which is the word of faith, and which reveals the righteousness of God to faith, comes with power and the spirit, only to the elect, although the word be preached to all. See I Thes. 1:4,5, "Knowing, brethren beloved, your election of God; for our gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance." Christ taught the same where he said, "Ye believe not, because ye are not my sheep, as I said unto you, my sheep hear my voice," &c. The faith of God's elect has Christ and his righteousness for its object, and so its object is our justifying righteousness, and so faith as to its object, is our justification; for in this sense Christ is called faith, see Gal. 3:23,25, and so faith is declared to be the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen, Heb. 11:1, the substance, as to its object, and an evidence to the soul of its interest in that object; and when the apostle would show that we are justified by the righteousness of Christ, which is revealed to faith, and is the righteousness on which faith builds; and by which the sinner is justified, and this is faith's substance, and of which it bears evidence for the comfort of the soul; showing this free justification by the obedience of Christ, without the works of the law, he speaks of our being justified, not for faith, but by faith, by faith really as to its object, CHRIST, and manifestively, as to its evidence of our interest in that object. Justification is a grace, and faith never secured it, or made it ours; but by Christ we have access into this grace, and faith is the eye by which we see our standing in this grace; and from the evidence of faith we see our standing in Justification, and we rejoice in hope of the glory of God; see Rom. 5:2, "By

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whom also we have access by faith into this grace [the grace of justification] wherein we stand and rejoice in the hope of the glory of God." So we see that by Christ we stand in the grace of justification, and by faith in him we see our standing in this grace, and so we rejoice in hope of the glory of God. Justification by faith is taught in opposition to the notion of justification by works, not because our faith as an act of ours justifies us, but because faith receives or views our justification complete in Christ without our works and so the apostle argues in Acts 13:39, "By him [Christ] all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses." By Christ alone are we justified, and faith is the Spirit's evidence to the soul of his interest in this grace; and it is said, Rom. 4:3, "Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. " Gal. 3:6, James 2:23, Rom. 4:5, 6, 7, 8, all of which prove that it was the substance or object of faith that justified Abraham, and not barely the act of Abraham's faith, for the fact which he believed was not dependant on an act of his faith; but his faith believed the fact, and received such evidence of its truth, as to fill Abraham with an unshaken confidence in God, that what he had promised he was able to perform; and so he gave glory to God. The same thing is declared, Rom. 4:23, and chapter 5:1, where Christ is spoken of as he "who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification." This verse ends the fourth chapter, and shows that Christ being delivered for our offences, had made full satisfaction for us, and so was raised again for our justification, and so justification is complete; then in the 5th chapter, 1st verse, he infers from this fact, that we may have peace, even the peace which a knowledge of our free justification will afford, by believing in the fact above settled, and says, "Therefore being justified, by faith we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ." I have changed the comma in the last quotation, because the sense of the passage required it, and some other versions place it as I have, but whether it be changed or not, the meaning is the same, when we take the two verses together, for the last is an inference drawn from the other, and both together show, that we were justified when Christ was raised from the dead, and faith in this truth affords us peace with God, and that peace we enjoy through our Lord Jesus Christ, who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification; and faith is an evidence of it to the soul. This is the sense in which the scriptures speak of justification by faith, and all goes to prove that we are not justified by an act of faith in the creature, but by the righteousness of Christ, and this is the righteousness which faith sees, and leads the soul to trust in; and this is what the poet sings, "Faith pleads no merit of its own, But looks for all in Christ. " And so "faith receives a righteousness that makes the sinner just." We see that faith is a fruit of the Spirit, and its office is to lead the soul to Christ, and as an eye to view the righteousness of Christ revealed to it in the gospel, and as a hand to take hold on that righteousness, and build the soul on it, as a sure foundation, and cause it to rejoice in God through Christ, and say, who shall

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lay anything to the charge of God' s elect? It is God that justifieth, who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, and so we see that justification is of the grace of God through the blood and righteousness of Christ, and faith is the Spirit's evidence of it to and for the comfort of the soul; and this is according to the experience of every truly regenerated man or woman, and I shall now show something of the way in which the experience of the people of God agrees with the doctrine of this discourse. I have showed that the elect of God have two standings, one in Christ, in relation to whom they are without blame before God; and another in Adam, in relation to whom, and, in themselves considered, they are condemned to death. Now men do not feel their condemnation properly until they are quickened by the Spirit; but as soon as they are made alive they begin to feel and see, and so faith is one of the first fruits of the Spirit; it views the excellency of the divine character, and the beauty of holiness, and begins to pant for the living God. Although the awakened sinner now has faith; its eye is not directed to Christ, but he now sees the glory and justice of God, and the purity of the law, and by the law he has a knowledge of sin; and so he begins to abhor himself and repent; he looks at himself in his fallen state, in relation to the first Adam, and sees that he is a condemned criminal; he reads the law, it sentences him to death and condemnation, and as he is wedded to a covenant of works, and sees not his relation to Christ, he begins to try to reform and keep the law, and work for life; and however long he may work under this legal persuasion, he finds but a poor reward, and at length he finds that all his plans are thwarted, and he is like the woman in the gospel that had spent all she had with physicians, and had got nothing better, but rather grew worse. Now the quickened sinner sees what he is in himself, and in relation to the first Adam, and that in this relation he is condemned to death, and can never be justified by any work or sacrifice in his power; all his hopes of obtaining salvation by the deeds of the law, gives up the ghost, for sin now appears exceedingly sinful, and it takes an occasion by the commandment to slay the sinner, who is ready to say, the commandment is holy, just and good, but I am carnal, sold under sin. Sin works by that which is good, and the sinner dies to all hope of ever being justified by any works of his own, and as if cut off from every other refuge, he cries, "God be merciful to me a sinner." His expectation being cut off from everything else, he looks to God only, and falls as a pensioner on his mercy and grace, filled with the deepest sense of his condemnation, and the impossibility of being justified by the works of the law. This is his state as he stands in himself, and in relation to the first Adam, and this he clearly sees; but here the gospel reveals to faith the righteousness of God, and by faith the soul views his justification complete in the blood and righteousness of Christ; not that his faith hath justified him, but by faith he sees that which was a truth before he saw it; and his soul seems to melt like wax into the depth of humility, and yet he rejoices, he is amazed at the matchless grace of God, is almost ready to wonder he never saw this before; the fullness of Christ engages his confidence, and the sentiments of the soul is, "In the Lord have I righteousness and strength, he has become my salvation." Now all this comfort flows from the

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evidence which faith bears to the soul, of its interest in and relation to Christ the second Adam; and from this view of his relation to Christ, in his death and resurrection, he builds his only hope for salvation in Christ, and this building is what is called the faith of reliance; and so it is written, "The just shall live by faith." To live by faith is to live relying on Christ, looking to Christ, and trusting in his righteousness, faithfulness, and truth. Faith as an act, has nothing in it to comfort the soul, but it brings all its comforts from its object, and so faith, though one of the first fruits which the Spirit produces in the soul, can afford no comfort to the soul until its eye is directed to Christ, and his blood and righteousness, which the gospel reveals to it, nor even then will it afford comfort to the soul, unless it views the relation in which the soul stands to that righteousness; for we may have strong faith in Christ, as one able to save, and yet have no comfortable assurance that he will save me; as the man in the gospel had a strong faith in the ability of Christ, and said, "If thou wilt thou canst make me clean, " but when faith views him, "The Lord our righteousness," the soul can rejoice, and say, "In the Lord have I righteousness." Christian reader, is it not according to thy own experience? The awakened sinner has faith in God, and in Christ as being righteous, but sees not his own relation to that righteousness, and therefore he is not comforted, but hungers and thirsts after righteousness, and although the promise is positive, "He shall be comforted," yet the soul cannot see how this can be; but when by faith the soul receives an evidence that it is related to Christ as its righteousness, it is then that it is filled and can rejoice in hope of the glory of God, and puts no confidence in the flesh; and so says Paul, "The life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me." I shall close this discourse with a song, which I composed some years past, suited to the tune Kingwood, which may serve as a recapitulation of this discourse. "O for a heart to love my God, A tongue to sound a Saviour's praise, His fullness to proclaim; In him the Father's fullness is, In him the treasures of his grace, Are open for the poor. Behold the Saviour on his throne, He turns an eye of pity down, And sees his bride enthrall'd, She is my love, I know her groan, And for her I must leave my throne, And bear her massy load. I was ordained e'er time began, To ransom God's elect of men, And suffer in their room; The time rolls on the atoning hour, I'll meet the thundering law with power And bear the flaming sword. The Saviour comes in human form, And with his priestly garments on, His breastplate shows their names, A Mediator now we see, Fulfilling God' s first great decree To save poor fallen man. Thus on the cross was Jesus slain, Sustained the curse, endured the pain, And bought the church with blood; As every charge on him was laid, And he complete atonement made, No curse can fall on those.

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The law can never curse them more, And justice burns with wrath no more, 'Tis quenched with Jesus' blood; And ever since the Head was slain, The body's justified from pain, With Jesus they are one. But when he rising from the tomb, Resumed his native glorious throne, His chosen rose in him; Then in their priest they are complete Accepted at the mercy seat, In Jesus they're received. Thus down to earth the tidings flew, Go tell the Gentile and the Jew, That Jesus lives again; He lives, he lives for you above, Your life is hid with Christ in God, Beyond the reach of harm. He'll bring you to his promised rest, With every blessing you'll be blest, And made like Jesus is; Yes, you shall circle round his throne, When all his work of grace is done, The ransomed shall get home. Then glory in fruition rise, And endless are their heavenly joys, When all the saints get home. With sounding notes they then shall sing The glories of their heavenly King, And all his fullness prove.

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Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 9 OF THE SONSHIP OF CHRIST, AND OF A GOSPEL CHURCH AND HER DUTIES.

Revelation chapter 2, from the 18th verse to the end of the chapter. "And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write, These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass." In this verse the Son of God commands John to write to the angel of the church in Thyatira; and we are naturally led to consider these two characters. First: The Son of God. Secondly: A gospel church. 1st. We shall consider the character of the Son of God. To have a proper knowledge of this glorious personage is one of the most important points in revealed religion. It embraces in it everything, which can make us wise unto salvation. Therefore it is said in the scripture, "to know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent, is eternal life." Jesus Christ, when he was in this world, declared himself to be the Son of God, and substantiated this declaration by many miracles. Hence it is said, "He was declared to be the Son of God with power." Christ is called the Son of God 44 times in the scriptures; and he is called the son of man 84 times. May we not be safe in saying that he is both the Son of God and of man? I never remember of his being called the son of man until he was born of Mary; and so I conclude, the appellation son of man was expressive of his corporeal body or flesh. Yet we find many of the works, which he done as God, and which could only be done by the divine nature, are attributed or ascribed to him as the son of man; such as forgiving sins on earth, exercising all judgment, &c. He is often called indefinitely the Son, without expressing his relation to God or man; but I believe it is always implied and perhaps where it is not expressed we may fairly understand both; for I find, that when his power as God is spoken of, and ascribed to him as Son, it is spoken of as a given power, as he says of himself, as the Son, speaking to a Father, "Thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him." The reason why Jesus was called the Son of God, when he was born of the virgin, is stated by the angel Gabriel to Mary in the following words: "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore, that Holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the SON OF GOD." Here the power of the Highest and the Holy Ghost are both spoken of, and because of the agency of both in the conception of Jesus, he is called the Son of God. Let those who are fond of personal distinctions and divisions in the Godhead say which of these two is the Father, for the power of the highest came upon Mary, and the Holy Ghost overshadowed her. Now if these were distinct persons, I ask which of the two was the Father of Jesus? But if this popish tri­personalism be left out of sight, and the power of the Highest, and the Holy Ghost, be the same thing and

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God be intended, then it is proper to say that holy thing which was conceived by the power of the highest God, who is a Holy Ghost, or Holy Spirit, should be called the Son of God, or the Son of the most high God. But we do not believe that the divinity of Jesus Christ was originated in this conception; therefore his sonship in this sense, was not in his divine nature, for his divine nature was not begotten by this overshadowing; but this begetting was the flesh of Christ, which came of the tribe of Judah and seed of David, according to the scriptures. Christ was both God and man in one person; as God, he was the root of David; as man he was David’s son; hence he is called the root and offspring of David; and as God was manifested in the flesh, many of his divine works are spoken of as the works of the Son, and properly too, because the Son performed those works, but performed them by the power, not of his begotten flesh, but of his unbegotten and underived divinity. So we see that the divinity of Christ was not begotten when his flesh was conceived in the womb of Mary. Therefore his being called the Son of God by the overshadowing, is with reference to the flesh of Christ, and not his divine nature, nor do I think any believer in the proper divinity of Christ, will contend that his divine person was begotten at this time; although some, nay, many, very many, have been vain enough to argue, that he was begotten as God by eternal generation; as if it added some greater honors to him to be begotten so long ago, than to be begotten at the conception of Mary. But a begotten being is but a begotten being, be him begotten whenever he may; whether in time or eternity as to eternal generation, I know nothing about it; but if there is any such a thing, I would much sooner believe that the human nature was that begotten, than his divine nature or divine person, as it is called. It matters not to me how far back men trace the divine Jesus; if they hold him as God, to be a Son, that is, a begotten being, it is to me so low and so diminutive an idea of the Immanuel, that I cannot believe it to be any better than Arianism under disguise; yet I am fully persuaded that many great men in Israel have believed it, not seeing the dishonor which it attached to the divinity of Christ, to make him a begotten divine person; and while men do not see this, I feel bound in charity to bear and forbear with my dear brethren, believing that their hearts are much better than their heads on this subject; and that from tradition and education they are blind to the evils of their system. May the good Lord help us all to know and love the truth, and enjoy the freedom, which it administers. Jesus as the Son of God was in existence before his conception or birth of Mary. He was seen by Nebuchadnezzar about 580 years before his birth of Mary according to Dan. 3:25; and his form was like the "Son of God." David in the second Psalm exhorts the kings to be wise, and "Kiss the Son." But we need not start the Son of God into being in the fiery furnace, for God created the worlds by him, as his Son, according to Heb. 1:2, and as his Son appointed him heir of all things. Now we have traced Jesus under the name Son, back from the gospel era, to the creation of the worlds, and we are done with dates, and therefore cannot tell when he was brought forth; but we are taught the fact, that is, we are taught that he was brought forth before the creation of any part of this world. Read Proverbs 8th chapter, and especially verses 22, 23, 24, 30, 120

31. From this chapter we are taught, in as plain words as we could now select from our language, that he was brought forth, set up, &c., and all this before the beginning of creation. In the above mentioned chapter this personage, who was brought forth before all worlds, is expressed to be God’s delight, rejoicing before him and as being with him. John in the first chapter of his gospel expresses the same; in verse 1, he says of the Word, that it was "with God;" in the 14th verse he says, this "Word was made flesh," and in the 18th verse this Word is called, "The only begotten Son which is in the bosom of the Father." I have showed elsewhere, that both natures: divine and human, was in this Word or wisdom, but it was not the divine nature that was brought forth, set up, &c., as mentioned in Proverbs, nor that was with God, and in his bosom mentioned by John, but this that was brought forth, and set up, was with God, and was his delight, dwelling in his love, called the bosom of the Father. This was the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father. Now we do see that the Son of God was brought forth before creation, but how long before I cannot tell, for the scriptures have not said, and I will not conjecture. I know there are many who are much opposed to the idea of this early existence of the human nature of the Son of God, and as the scriptures speak of him as a Son, so long before his birth of Mary, they have placed his sonship in his divinity and hold him to be begotten as God! I have never doubted the divinity of Christ, or that his divinity is the only wise God; but I do not believe that his divinity was begotten, but his human nature being begotten, brought forth and set up, was strictly speaking, the Son of God; yet the human nature being brought forth, begotten, or derived of the divine nature, and on that account in complete subserviency to the divine will, he moves in the very channel prescribed by the divine; so while he is sent into the world, he comes freely, not to do the will of the begotten human nature; but the will of the Father or unbegotten divinity; not to do a work which the begotten son or man had laid out, but to do a work which the Father or begetting divinity had given him to do; and as the Son had heard and learned with the Father so he judged; the Son or human nature did not even seek his own glory. In support of these assertions, read the 8th chapter of John, where Christ speaks largely of his own sonship, and we know that his testimony is true. Now some person, who is more tenacious for old tradition than for truth, may try to pervert the above remarks into the appearance of a denial of the proper divinity of the Son of God; but when anyone wishes to pervert the obvious views of a speaker, I think it hardly worth while to spend much time to answer his criticism; but I will here state, once for all, that I am as firm a believer in the divine deity of the Son as any man; and whoever can select words to express it in the highest colors; those are the words I would choose to use, when I express it; and this is reason enough why I should refuse to acknowledge his divinity to be a begotten divine person. The filiation of Christ is in his human nature; which was brought forth before all worlds; and it being properly the Son of God, being derived or brought forth before all worlds, and in every sense in complete agreement or conformity to the divine will, was actuated by it, and voluntarily performed all that the divine nature dictated to be done. Now as the human nature was begotten, and not

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the divine nature; so the human nature strictly speaking was the Son of God, and not the divine; but both natures being in one person, he is both God and man, in one Christ. The divinity of the Son of God is the MIGHTY GOD, who never was begotten, but was the EVERLASTING FATHER; and his human nature was the begotten Son of the Father. Both these natures, being in one person and proper to him as his own, without delegation from any other person, or being begotten of any other person, or in any sense dependent on any other person; he exists of himself, and by himself, and these two whole and distinct natures, being in one person, he is both God and man, both Father and Son; and as the man was the visible form of the invisible God, and the glory of the divine nature, or God was only visible in the visible man, in whom he was manifested; so this personage is properly called: God or Man, Father or Son, and is called both a given Son and the everlasting Father, in one verse; Isa. 9:6. In the first chapter of Revelation, this person is spoken of as appearing to John in the Isle of Patmos; and he declared himself to be both these natures in the same person. In verse 11, he declares, "I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last." When John heard this declaration behind him, he turned to see the voice or who it was that spoke to him; and saw seven golden candlesticks, and in the midst of them, "one like unto the son of man," verse 13; this personage which John says was like unto the son of man, whom he described by his clothing, a "garment down to the foot, and a golden girdle about the paps;" by his head and his hairs, "white like wool, as white as snow," and by his eyes, ‘‘as a flame of fire, and his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters." This august personage had in his right hand seven stars, the hieroglyphics of the angels, or ministers of the seven churches in Asia, [and perhaps may denote ministers in all ages] was in the midst of the golden candlesticks, the hieroglyphics of the churches; "and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength." The overpowering glory of this son of man [whom John calls afterwards the Son of God] was such, that mortality fainted beneath its blazing splendor, and John fell, as dead at his feet; but he laid his right hand upon him, saying, "Fear not; I am the first and the last; I am he that liveth and was dead; and behold I am alive forevermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death." Here are seven particular traits or descriptive characteristics in this personage, and these John distinguishes, at the commencement of the seven epistles, in the second chapter, verses 1, 8, 12, 18, and chapter 3:1, 7, 14. But all these characters are in one person; in the first chapter, and at the 11th and 19th verses, commands John to write these things, and John at the second verse calls his writing, "the testimony of Jesus Christ." The same person that John speaks of in chapter 1, verse 13, as being "one like unto the Son of man;" he calls him in the 2nd chapter, 18th verse, "THE SON OF GOD, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass." This person here called the "first and the last," "the Alpha and Omega," &c., was surely the unbegotten, underived God; but the same person declares himself to be, him that liveth and was dead; and John says, he was like unto the Son of man. These declarations show his human nature, for his divinity, the first and the last, the Alpha and

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the Omega, was never dead. But this person, including both natures, fills every character ascribed to him; but if his divinity or divine person was begotten and distinct from the Father, he could not have been called the first; for the Father who begot him was before him; and if the Holy Ghost was another person distinct from them both, he was not the last, for the Holy Ghost proceeded from them; and if he was not the whole triune God he would not have been called "the Alpha and Omega." The Alpha being the first letter in the Greek alphabet, and the Omega the last, the whole alphabet is included between these two letters, and this person being both shows that the whole trinity of God was in him. And as this person was alive, and had been dead, and is called the Son of man, it shows that the human nature was in him; and this same person hath "the seven spirits of God," see chapter 3:1, or the fullness of the Spirit of God, and is the prince of the kings of the earth. So he is the same person whom the prophet speaks of when he said, "Unto us a Son is given, and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, the Mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of peace. " He is both the Son and the everlasting Father in one person, the Son in his human nature, and the Father in his divine nature. Thus while his Sonship, strictly speaking, belongs to his human nature, which was begotten, and so is called his only begotten Son; [the reader will not be vain enough to think of this begetting in the ordinary sense of the word, but a production brought about by the power or love of God, as Christ was raised from the dead by the power of God, and it is called a begetting, Rev. 1: 5, Col. 1:18,] yet the eternal Godhead was proper to, and belonged to the same person, so that the divinity of Christ is so far from being tarnished by saying that his sonship, strictly speaking, belongs to his human nature, that it is exalted; for if his divine nature was the Son, strictly speaking, we must admit, that his divine nature was begotten or produced, and this is too degrading an idea of the adorable Jesus. Then God, the unbegotten, underived, self­existent, and independent Jehovah, and the mediator, the man Christ Jesus, were in one person, and did appear to John under a sevenfold character, as both God and man; and being visible in the human nature, and appearing like the son of man, and possessing all the glories of the deity; he is declared to be the "Son of God." This person was walking in the midst of the golden candlesticks or churches; to show his care and attention to his people; he holds the stars or ministers in his right hand to show how he supplies them; he has the seven spirits of God to store them with gifts and graces; and appears in all the translucent glories of his divine majesty, paternal attention, and humble but deeply interesting sonship. O that he may ever hold his ministers in his right hand. O that his countenance, like the sun in its strength, may dispel every cloud of error from his church. May his eyes like flames strike terror to the hearts of his enemies, and his voice like the sound of many waters, call his friends to the feast of his love. This person with both natures was both God and man; and John was his disciple and apostle, who would obey his command, in writing for the good of his church; and this is the command, "Unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write, these things saith the SON OF GOD."

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This brings me to the second proposition, which is to consider: What we are to understand by a gospel church. The term church is used in different senses in scripture; sometimes for all the elect of God, as in Eph. 5:25, 26, 27, 32, and many other places. Sometimes for all true evangelic believers, as in Acts 2:47, 5:11, 8:1. Sometimes for a particular located body of believers, who for local conveniences have formed themselves into a body, to be governed by the scriptures, and keep up the worship of God socially, and observe the ordinances of the gospel. In this sense I understand the term church to be used in the verse under consideration; for there were seven churches in Asia, and the one mentioned in this verse was in Thyatira. A church in this sense I understand to be any number of believers that may have been baptized [I mean immersed] upon profession of their faith in Christ. All the churches in the apostles’ days were composed of such materials. When John came to prepare a people for Christ, or materials for the first gospel church, he came "baptizing with water;" and when Jesus entered on his gospel ministry, he was baptized, and so was manifested to Israel by water. And his disciples by his command continued baptizing, as it is said, "Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John, though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples." From the baptism of John, the example of Christ, the continuation of the same practice by the disciples, and the express command of Christ in the commission he gave to the apostles after his resurrection, there remained no doubt of the propriety of water baptism, in order to church membership; so on the day of Pentecost, when many cried out, "What shall we do," being pricked to the heart under Peter’s sermon, with a full conviction that Jesus was the Christ, baptism was enjoined upon them, and as many as gladly received the word were baptized, and the same day there was added to the church about three thousand. This was the first gospel church, and we see these were baptized believers. Here in this first church, the members were thus prepared; first, they received the word gladly; secondly, they were baptized; thirdly, they were added to the church. And then they continued steadfastly in the apostle’s doctrine, in fellowship, in breaking of bread, and in prayers. This was the first church, and a model for all the rest; and they were built of materials made ready in the same way. So the church at Samaria was built of materials who rejoiced at Philip’s preaching, and "when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God and the name Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women." The church at Cesarea was formed of the same kind of materials; for when Cornelius had sent for Peter, he went and preached Jesus to them, and when he perceived that they had received the Holy Ghost, he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord; see Acts l0th chapter. In Acts, l6th chapter, you will find that the church at Philippi was formed of similar materials; Lydia, whose heart the Lord opened, and her household which were the brethren, that the apostles comforted; and the jailor who rejoiced, believing in God with all his house; these two families of believers and brethren were all baptized, and so this church was formed. Read the 18th chapter of Acts, and you will see that the church at Corinth

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was composed of baptized believers; for when Paul preached in that place, "Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Lord, with all his house; and many of the Corinthians hearing, believed, and were baptized." These Paul calls "the church of God, which is at Corinth;" see I Cor. 1:2, and declares, I Cor.11:2, "that they kept the ordinances as he had delivered them." The church at Rome was composed of materials who had been baptized unto Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death, nay such as were buried with him in baptism; see Rom. 6:3. The churches at Galatia, Colosse and Ephesus were all composed of baptized believers, and so the apostle says, Gal. 3:26,27, "For ye are the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus, for as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ." This church was therefore composed of baptized believers. The church at Colosse was composed of saints and brethren in Christ; see Col. 1:2, and in chap. 2: 12, who were "buried with him in baptism, "&c. The church at Ephesus was of the same sort of materials. See Acts 19:1, 4, 5. Paul having passed through the upper coasts to Ephesus, and finding certain disciples, said unto them, "John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people that they should believe on him who should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus." On which account he calls them "the saints, which are at Ephesus and the faithful in Christ Jesus." Eph. 1:1. Thus we see the primitive church at Jerusalem was a body of baptized believers; and that when a sore persecution arose in that place, the brethren were scattered abroad, and went in different directions, preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ; and when their ministry was blessed, and the people believed, they were baptized and formed a worshipping assembly, under the gospel charter or laws of Christ; and enjoyed amongst themselves as a church all the ordinances of the gospel, or of a gospel church. Therefore we are well supported in saying, that the members of the apostolic churches were baptists, or baptized believers, nor do we read of any church, in the apostles’ days, that were not composed of such members. And as the gospel gives us but one model of a church, [that at Jerusalem] and the apostles were as particular in the formation of all the above named churches, to have them baptized believers, as Moses was in building the former tabernacle according to the pattern showed to him in the mount; so the church at Thyatira, seems to have been a congregated body of baptized believers; for this city of Thyatira, was in Asia Minor, and the apostle in Acts 19: 10, says, "All they who dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks." And it is pointedly said, Acts 11: 14, that "Lydia, who was of this very city, was baptized with her household, and being at Philippi, as a trader when this took place, she probably returned afterwards to Thyatira, her place of residence, and was the seed of the church, which John now writes to; if so, [and it seems to be so] this was a baptized church of believers, and Lydia might be addressed, and the church of God in thy house, as well as another. Thus we

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have seen the pattern of the first gospel church, and the constant example of the apostles in forming all the other churches after this pattern, that a church in the apostolic sense is a congregated body of baptized believers, who for local convenience have united themselves in a religious society, to be governed by the laws, and maintain the doctrine and ordinances of Christ; and those societies, formed of unbaptized and unbelieving members are not churches in the scripture sense of the word.

Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 10 A SERMON Delivered by WILSON THOMPSON, in Lebanon, on the fourth Lord’s day in July 1823.

The following discourse is published by request of a number of the members of the Baptist Church in Lebanon, as near verbatim as can be from memory. As I had no notes, nor any thoughts of writing it at the time of delivering it, nor for several days afterwards, it is probable that it is not verbatim literatim; but having been inspected by a number who heard it extempore, they say there is no observable difference in matter or style. Some of the same arguments are repeated in it that are used in the foregoing discourses, and it may serve as a recapitulation of the whole, I therefore choose to place it here. LUKE 23:35. "And the people stood beholding; and the rulers also with them, derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself; if he be Christ, the chosen of God." Those who have made themselves conversant with the scriptures, and have read with interest the history of our blessed Saviour’s humiliation, will need no remarks on the foregoing verses, as the very recital of the text itself will lead their minds to the contemplation of that pleasing, mournful hour, when the Son of God was fastened to the cross between two malefactors, there to suffer and die for the fallen sons of an apostate Adam. The sufferings and death of Christ in behalf and for the salvation of sinners, were irrevocably settled in the purpose of God; but the Jews were ignorant of that purpose, and therefore that purpose could not have had any influence on them to be active in its accomplishment; but they were under the influence of their carnal mind, which is enmity to God. This was Peter’s sentiment, when he was full of the Holy Ghost, and said, "Him being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain." The purpose of God with regard to the incarnation and death of the blessed Jesus, was shadowed out by the ceremonies of the law, and taught by the sons of Aaron in the Levitical priesthood, by every bleating lamb and bleeding bullock that stained with purple gore the burning altar in the Jewish temple;

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hence says the apostle, "The law was our schoolmaster to bring us to Christ." This purpose was revealed to the holy prophets under the former dispensation, and they with hearts of gratitude, souls fired with a hallowed flame of the Holy Spirit, and tongues or pens flowing with melting strains of refined eloquence, "showed before the coming of that just one," who had been promised to Abraham, believed in by the fathers, described by the seers as a king who should reign in Israel, that Judah and Jerusalem should be saved in his reign, and the horn of David be exalted in honor, and his kingdom be glorious. In consequence of these prophecies the Jews were authorized to look for a great king to rise from Abraham’s loin; but they supposed his honors would be of this world; that he would wrest the government from the Romans; tear the galling yoke from the neck of the Jews; advance their honors, and make the surrounding nations their tributaries. These seem to have been the towering expectations of the Jews, these selfish views, the national hopes and the political prospects of the descendants of Abraham, in regard to the dignities of the promised Messiah. "All Israel was in expectation;" Daniel’s weeks rolled round, the infant of Bethlehem was born in a manger, an innumerable company of the heavenly host, in ecstasies of praise announce the birth of the Saviour in language the most interesting to men, and the most delightful to themselves, they close the message with a loud anthem, "Glory to God in the highest; on earth peace, good will toward men, for this day is born unto you in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord." He is soon persecuted, his parents must flee their country to save his life, he is raised in poverty, and continues with his parents until he commences his ministry, he sanctions John’s baptism by his example, overcomes the tempter in the mount, calls his disciples to follow him, goes from place to place doing good, and professes to be the Son of God, the Saviour of men, the light of the world, the bread of life, the root and Lord of David, as well as his Son. When the Jews found that he made such high pretensions as these, they undertook to entangle him in his words, and to treat him with contempt and ridicule. Had he professed to be a prophet of the ordinary cast, or even a great prophet; nay, even one of the old prophets risen from the dead, it seems at least some of them would have believed it; had he told them he had come to advance their political glories, erect monuments of honor to their nation, and unsheathe the glittering sword for the defense of Jerusalem, to avenge her wrongs in the blood of nations, his miracles had, no doubt, been sufficient to have caused the Jews to rally round his standard with warlike enthusiasm, and thirst for the blood of their enemies; but when he declared, My kingdom is not of this world, that he was from above, that God was his Father, that he and his Father were one, &c., they took up stones to cast at him, accused him of blasphemy, because he, being a man, made himself God. For his doctrine, profession, and pretensions to Divinity, they accused him, reviled him, persecuted him, and pointing at him with the finger of scorn, they say, "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Is not this the carpenter’s son? He speaks blasphemy. He is beside himself. He hath a devil, and is mad. Crucify him, crucify him! Their highest expectations were temporal national grandeur, and as he made no pretensions to this, they rejected him as

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the Messiah, condemned him as an impostor, brought him before the rulers, and sentenced him to the painful and shameful death of the cross, on which they placed him, and then "the people stood beholding, and the rulers also with them, deriding him, saying, He saved others, let him save himself, if he be the Christ, the chosen of God." In attending more particularly to our text, we shall notice two things, which present themselves to our view in these words. First: Christ’s pretensions to divinity, and, Secondly: The moral turpitude of the human heart as exposed in his crucifixion. First. Had Jesus professed no more than a delegated divinity, the Jews would not have been so much enraged at him; but when he declared himself to be God, in the highest sense, saying, "I and my Father are one," they took "up stones to cast at him." They had read in their scriptures that God was the only Saviour, but Christ made pretensions to salvation; therefore they understood that he made out that he was God; they were taught to believe in a God that was invisible, but Christ was a man passing daily amongst them; they could see him, and even see him associating and eating with sinners, and he seemed to be their friend; the Jews rejected him, and said, with a firm determination, "We will not have this man to reign over us." Thus the Jews refused him as their king and Messiah, because "He being a man made himself God." But surely they did not understand their own scriptures, for this was the very character the prophets had described when they spoke of the Messiah. Isaiah says, "Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given." This shows that the Messiah would be a man ­a child ­a male child ­a son; but though a man, he was to be the very God; for "His name shall be called wonderful, counselor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of peace." Now because Christ said that he [being a man] was this very character, the Jews said, "He is a blasphemer," and I find that even now many men who call themselves christians, and profess some reverence for Jesus and his divinity are much offended if we call him "the everlasting Father;" but the promised Messiah was to be so called, although clothed with the body of a child, a son, or human nature. Thus Christ professed to be his real character; and if the people would not believe his words, he would refer them to his works; which bear testimony of him. Hear him say, "Of myself [as man] I can do nothing. The works, which I do in my Father’s name, they bear witness of me. The Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. I am in the Father, and the Father in me." See his works: "The dead are raised up," "the dumb speak," "the lepers are cleansed," "all pestilential diseases are cured," "the blind see;" nay, "even the winds and the seas obey him," and the devils and unclean spirits cry out at his presence, and leave the possessed at his rebuke, "the water becomes choice wine at his bidding," and the fig tree withers under his curse. If he is not the "mighty God, the everlasting Father," these works challenge all your reason and philosophy to account for on any magic principles, or cunning slight of hand; no, the world

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must be silent, and believe what he says, "I and my Father are one, " or drown these evidences in the hideous clangor, "Crucify him, crucify him;" for if they should maliciously attribute his miracles to Beelzebub; they have been once silenced on that subject already. That Jesus existed in two natures but few deny; but that his divine nature was exclusively God, but few comparatively acknowledge; and many object to the pre­existence of his human nature. I shall therefore turn your attention to a few passages of scripture to prove these important points. "There is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus." The man Christ Jesus implies; or rather expresses his human nature; for his human nature was the man, and the man was the mediator; then ever since there was a mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus has existed; but "God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself." It pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell in him. The whole fullness of the Godhead [not the second person only] dwelt in him bodily. Thus the human nature of Christ is "the way to the Father," that dwelt in him; and so he said, "No man cometh unto the Father but by me." That is the same as to say, no man can come unto God but by a mediator, I am the only mediator ­the man Christ Jesus; therefore no man can have access to God, but by me; for he is in me. "No man knoweth the Father but the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him." The scriptures of the old and new Testaments unite in declaring that God was never seen by man. John says in his gospel, chapter 1, vs.18, "No man hath seen God at any time;" and when he wrote his first epistle [although some say this was after he had seen the Alpha and the Omega in the Isle of Patmos] his sentiment is the same, for there we find the same words, chap.3, vs.12, "No man hath seen God at any time." Paul was of the same opinion when he wrote his first letter to Timothy, last chap., verses 15, 16; he says, speaking of Christ, "Which in his time he shall show who is the blessed and only potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; who only hath immortality dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see." God declared the same to Moses, saying, "No man shall see my face and live." Now how shall we reconcile the above scriptures with the many places where men have seen God and have talked with him? I would fain hope that those who deny that the mediator ever existed before he was born of the virgin, that is, that the man Christ Jesus existed before he was born of the virgin Mary, would attempt to reconcile those scriptures; for I know not how they would proceed in it; but if we will admit that there was a mediator, "the man Christ Jesus," between the patriarch’s, prophets, and saints of old and God, as there is now between us and God and that he could be seen through that medium by them, as he was by the apostles; that is, his glory could be seen in the face of Jesus; then all is easy, but must appear paradoxical any other way, as Christ said to Philip, "He that hath seen me hath seen the Father." "God was in Christ, " and they who have seen Christ and the glory of God shining in his face, have seen all of God that can be seen, for naked divinity is invisible, and no man hath seen it, nor can see it. Did Moses see God in Horeb? It was his glory as a flame of fire in a bush; and the wonder was, the bush was not consumed. Did the

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Lord speak to Moses? It was "out of the midst of the bush." The bush was to represent the humanity, and the fire the glory of the divinity and so the glory of God was seen in the bush, as it is revealed in the flesh of the mediator. Did Abraham see the Lord? He was in human shape or form, and conversed with him with regard to Sodom, then the man in human nature not only existed in Abraham’s day, but when he was seen, God’s glory was seen shining in him, and so Abraham saw the Lord. When Jacob, Manoah, and many others, saw and conversed with God, in the form of a man, could this be and yet the man not then be in existence? We might turn your attention to many places where God was seen by men, but time would fail us to speak of all the prophets, and fathers, and kings, who saw him as a man at different times from the creation to the birth of Christ in the manger. But we may well say the divine glory was seen in the man or human nature, and no other way was God ever seen, for no man could see him [except in the mediator] and live, for divinity unveiled is invisible to mortals, nor could mortality bear the sight and live. John says, "The only begotten Son which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him;" and Christ says, "He that hath seen me hath seen the Father." Here in him they see their God in the displays of his power, grace, and glory, and are constrained to lift their voice with the poet, and sing, "O sacred beauties of the man, The God resides within, His flesh all pure without a spot, His soul without a sin." I may safely say, "No man hath seen God at any time," but when "God who commanded the light to shine out of darkness," shines into our hearts, it is to "give us the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." Then we can see God reconciled and reconciling us to himself; then may we say, with pleasing wonder, "I have heard of thee with the hearing of the ear, but now mine eyes see thee, wherefore I abhor myself and repent in dust and ashes." Thus God is seen in the exercise of his wisdom, power and grace, in the displays of his glory and his alluring love; but all in Christ the mediator and medium of communication from God to man; he is the only way to the Father ­ the Father is in him ­we cannot come to the Father but by him, nor see the Father but in him. Thus we have clearly seen that the human nature of Christ did pre­exist his birth at Bethlehem, and was seen by the saints of old, and God appeared to them in the man, and they saw his glory and said, "We have seen God" ­"the Lord God of Israel." In the same way they saw God, who saw Christ, when he was here on earth, in the days of his flesh; and so John in the Isle of Patmos, on the Lord’s day, when he was in the spirit, saw him that was like unto the son of man, him that had been dead and was alive, and lives for evermore, and hath the keys of hell and of death. Here his human nature is brought to view; but his exclusive divinity is as plainly manifested, for he declares himself to be the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. Is there any God distinct from the FIRST and the LAST? If not, then Jesus in his

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divine nature is exclusively God, for he is the first and the last, and beside him who is the first and the last, I know of no God. "The LORD GOD of the holy prophets sent his angel to show unto his servants the things which must be shortly done." Jesus is the Lord of the holy prophets, for he says, "I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches." "Thus saith the LORD, the king of Israel and his redeemer, the LORD OF HOSTS, I am the first, and I am the last, and beside me there is no God. " Jesus is the "first and the last;" therefore beside Jesus there is no God. Jesus is the Lord God of the holy prophets, who sent his angel; he is the ALPHA and OMEGA, as saith Jehovah, "I even I am the LORD, and beside me there is no saviour." Jesus is both Lord and Saviour ­"our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." Then Jesus is that Lord beside whom there is no saviour. In Jesus the whole fullness of the Godhead dwells, and if the whole fullness is in him, then the whole triune God was in him ­the whole trinity of "Father, Word, and Holy Ghost." Here the "three that bear record in heaven," have displayed their glory. Here the God of angels and men, he who gilds heaven with his smiles, who pours forth the eternal torrent of celestial glory, which transports the glorified millions, and extorts from every heavenly tongue the sweet anthem, "Glory to God in the highest;" here I say, in the body of Christ the triune God descends to men. {*When I say the God descends in the man or body of Christ, let it be understood of the manifestation of the Triune God. God fills all space, and is every where present; but he has revealed himself to men, in the man who came down from heaven, and in this sense God is spoken of as coming down; that is, in the man God reveals himself to men on earth, and becomes accessible to men.} Let angels strike their highest strains, lift their voices in sweet concert, bursting from the battlements of heaven, pursue the object of their worship down to earth ­earth, the seat of confusion, strife, and war, where the prisoners groan with lingering pain, where mortality spreads its desolating influence, and death armed by sin, exerts its power to fill the tombs with ghastly skulls and moldering bones. While death with all its train, armed by man’s rebellion, with all the implements of slaughter, goes forth with velocity and revenge, and without the least relenting, drags the rebel man down to endless pain and woe ­behold the Saviour ­the mighty God in human form descends ­the angels know the peace his presence gives, and in accents of joy and acclamation of praise, they sing to listening shepherds, "Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, good will toward men; for this day is born in the city of David a Saviour which is Christ the LORD." O my brethren, did the Lord descend as a Saviour for us; and shall our hearts not burn with joy? Shall our tongues be silent? Our affections cold? Our devotions languid, and our zeal uninspired! Shall we who have rebelled, we who have sold ourselves for naught ­but O amazing grace ­hear it fellow sinners ­we for whom the only God in human form descends in humble flesh ­we for whom the man, the mediator suffered here below, and died to save our souls from endless pain ­behold him in the garden sweating great drops of blood ­ see the hand approach him with a deceitful kiss ­see him buffeted, spit upon, crowned with piercing thorns, and smitten with a reed, and his omniscience insulted with a challenge to prophesy ­see him stained with

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purple gore, with feet and hands transfixed and torn with iron javelins, fastened to the cross. The trinity in unity is now in him, the Father is in him, for this as we have seen he has frequently declared, then it is the truth when he says, "I and my Father are one," and while he hath a people on earth to record his name; they like the prophet will say; "His name shall be called the MIGHTY GOD, the EVERLASTING FATHER, the Prince of Peace;" this is our Immanuel. The Holy Ghost was in him, for he was "anointed with the Holy Ghost [or oil of gladness] above his fellows;" not above his fellows as a divine person; that is, above the Father and Holy Ghost, but the human nature was anointed above his fellows as man, the prophets and apostles may be said to be anointed with the Holy Ghost in a measure, but he without measure, and if without measure, it was with the whole of it; and so "the spirit of the Lord God was upon him." "All scriptures were given by inspiration of God; "but that God was the Holy Ghost; for "holy men spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost;" but that Holy Ghost was the spirit of Christ, for Peter says, when speaking of the prophets who prophesied of this salvation, and the grace that should be revealed, that they were "searching what, or what manner of time the spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow." Then the spirit of Christ which was testifying in the prophets was the Holy Ghost by which they spoke, and this was that God by whose inspiration all scriptures were given. Therefore God the Holy Ghost, and the spirit of Jesus, is the same thing, and except we have the spirit of Christ [that is the Holy Ghost] we are none of his. Thus the whole trinity of Father, Word, and Holy Ghost is in the man Christ Jesus. {*When I say the whole trinity or the whole Godhead was in the man Christ, I would not be understood to mean that God was circumscribed by the corporeal body of Christ, but that the God which was manifested in the flesh or body of Christ, was God to the exclusion of all persons distinct from him; and that the Father, Word, and Holy Ghost are manifested in the man, and not the second person only, to the exclusion of the Father and Holy Ghost.} This honor he claimed, this glory his followers ascribed to him, this was his profession of himself, and for this profession men both Jews and Greeks opposed him. The Jews were taught in their scriptures that God was the only Saviour; therefore, when Christ taught the people to believe and trust in him for salvation, they reviled him, buffeted and scourged him, sought for false witnesses, and condemned him. They raised him on the cross, and offered him vinegar and gall, and with sarcastic jeers seem to rejoice at his pain, and tauntingly derided him saying, [by way of mockery] "He saved others; let him save himself, if he be the Christ, the chosen of God." While we further illustrate our present subject, we shall attend to the second proposition therein. Secondly: We shall show the moral turpitude of the human heart as exposed in the crucifixion of Christ. We have seen that according to the pretensions of Christ he was both God and man; that he professed himself to be the only Saviour, &c. By making this profession the Jews reproached him as a blasphemer, rejected him as an impostor, and crucified him as a malefactor. And in order to revile him for pretending to have a power to save others, they

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call on him to save himself if he be the Christ the chosen of God, as if they had said, he professed to be the saviour of men, the God of Israel, the vanquisher of devils, the rebuker of diseases, pain, and death itself. Now we will test his power; now let him save himself; let him loose the nails with which he is fastened to the cross, and come down. This was the hour and power of darkness; this was the day when sin and Satan both engaged in all their dreadful forms, and summoned the rebellious sons of men to engage in the unequal war. They rally round the cross, with unrelenting hearts; they challenge the Saviour to give a proof of his power, in delivering himself. "Let him come down from the cross, and we will believe." I will not say he could not come down; I will not limit the power of the holy one; but the iniquities of his sheep were laid upon him, the decision of heaven was past upon it; the time predestinated of God had expired; and "to this hour he had come," in this way he was to finish the work which he had engaged in; this the prophets had showed before; this the shadows under the law had pointed to; and therefore it doth not appear how it could have been consistent with his plan of grace to have come down from the cross. No kind hand to help him; no comforter to sooth his sorrows. The rulers and the people deride him; devils seem to rejoice, and hell with a delusive hope, for awhile seem to triumph. His mother and John standby to behold the scene in melting grief! But rebels for whom he died remained unfeeling, with hearts unmoved and calloused by the tyrant sin; and filled with enmity, continue their derision. Here we may see the picture of the human heart, the malignity of human nature since the fall, and be convinced that "the carnal mind is not subject to the law of God." Is not shame, pain, mockery, and derision enough for the Saviour to bear? No, he must die; he must give his life for his sheep. While devils smile with a vain hope of victory, and men with hearts of steel, make sport of his pain; the God forsakes the man, and leaves him, here to die. O hear him who had borne all his grief before in silence cry out in mournful accents, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me." Now for a while hell seemed to triumph; the sun blushes into darkness; black chaos spreads her gloomy veil around the trembling earth; while rocks in wild confusion start and quake; all nature mourns; the temple rends its veil; and the very dead forsake their graves, and bend their course for the city, as if to chide the murderers of their Lord. Then Jesus cried, "It is finished, and gave up the ghost." May I say, that devils reached their arm to grasp the laurel, and call the worlds their own; but their arm was too short to reach the prize. The heart of man, not moved with all these sufferings, set a guard to watch the tomb in which he sleeps in death. The disciples mourn, and women prepare their ointment; but two days are all that Jesus sleeps; the third behold him rise again. The God that left him on the cross returned again, and raised him from the dead. It was the Father that raised him from the dead, and he was quickened by the Holy Spirit, then the Trinity; God I say, resumed his body again; and so the Saviour rises; the gloom recedes; the angels descend to announce his resurrection; the earth quakes under the display of his victory, and the guard become as dead men; the disciples filled with amazement run to the sepulcher; but lo, the Saviour left the tomb. The victorious conqueror has 133spoiled the powers of earth and hell; he has conquered death, and "by death destroyed him that had the power of death, that is the devil;" he has loosed the powers of death, and could no longer be holden of it; he has got the "keys of hell and of death," he teaches his disciples into the nature of his conquest, by the space of forty days, he declared he had all power in heaven and earth in his hand, and commissioned them to "go forth into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature," and then ascended "up on high," "led captivity captive," "brought life and immortality to light through the gospel." And may I not safely say, his humanity is the throne of grace, and his divinity the God of grace enthroned. There his glory shines; there his love is revealed. Did John hear his voice as the sound of many waters? He turned to see the voice, and he saw one like the son of man, girt about the paps with a golden girdle; his eyes were like a flame of fire, his feet like fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace, and his head and his hair white like wool, as white as snow. He is Jesus; he is Alpha and Omega, the first and the last; on his vesture and on his thigh is his name, written in large capitals, KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS. O let angels praise him; let saints adore him; let elders cast their crowns at his feet, and utter their creed in accents of devotion, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, thou who art, and was, and is to come;" while the redeemed thousands on earth reverberate the same sentiment, in this high anthem, "Great and marvelous are thy works, LORD GOD ALMIGHTY, just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints." Thus saints on earth, and elders round the throne, in strains alike, may swell their notes in solemn chord, and own their God in Christ, the Lord of lords, and strain their high immortal powers to speak his worth, and count his victories o’er. Time admonishes me; I must come to a close by a brief recapitulation. My brethren, we have seen in this discourse that the mediator is the Man Christ Jesus, that as such he was seen by Moses, Abraham, &c., before his birth of Mary; that God was in him, and his divine glory was visible in the man, so that the saints saw God in human form, and worshipped him. That in the days of his incarnation they who saw him saw the Father, as it is said," And we beheld his glory, [the glory of the only begotten of the Father] full of grace and truth." So that "he that hath seen Jesus, hath seen the Father;" that the "Word was made flesh;" the Father was in him, and he was anointed with the Holy Ghost without measure, and so was made a quickening spirit, and so the whole trinity in God was revealed by and in the person of Jesus Christ. We have seen that in this way God was seen in the mediator, in whom "the whole fullness of the Godhead dwelt;" and so although no man had ever seen God [unveiled divinity,] yet they had seen the man, the visible form of God, and had beheld his divine glory, and in this way the scriptures are true, and easily reconciled, while they declare that God was never seen, and again, that many have seen the Lord God of Israel. They saw the man, and in him they beheld the glory of God, but not his divine essence unveiled. We have seen that Jesus is the Lord God of the holy prophets, the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, and the God beside whom there is no saviour. We have seen that it was for making this profession, "I and my Father are one;" that the Jews took up stones to cast at him; for this

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they accused him, for this they reviled him, and for this they tauntingly said, "He saved others, let him now save himself, if he be the Christ, the chosen of God." We have seen the moral turpitude of the human heart displayed and exposed in awful colors, while men with devils join in strong alliance, to slay in murderous form the only Saviour, and shut the only door of hope, and stop the way of communication from God to man; to break down the ladder on which the ministering angels pass; to overset the throne of God, and stop the river springing up from thence from wafting blessings down to men. But sovereign power prevailed; and although God forsook, and left him here to die beneath their rage, and bear the heavy curse and glittering sword that now awoke from slumbering long; and smote the shepherd of the sheep. The man, the mediator died; the purple torrent, which cleanses from all sin, then stained his body on the cross. O brethren see! Here is sin exposed. O hear our Jesus cry, "It is finished," and give up the ghost; count the victories he has won, and say to listening angels, all these victories are mine; but stop not here; behold him rising; the God reanimates the man; he bursts death’s bars and bolts asunder; he wrests the victory of the grave; the conqueror mounts aloft; and after he shows himself alive to many witnesses, he leaves this world of woe; he makes a bright cloud his chariot, and rides in triumph to where he had been before all worlds; and leading captivity captive, he opens wide the portals of celestial glory to his people, and says, "Be of good comfort, I have overcome the world, and where I am there shall ye be also, for I will come again and receive you to myself." O brethren, what manner of persons ought we to be; we for whom the blessed Jesus groaned and died; we for whom the battle was fought, the victory won, the prize taken, and heaven’s high portals opened for our admission to the enjoyment of that "inheritance which is incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away." My fellow sinners, who are bound with me to the judgment seat of Christ, is it nothing to you that Jesus died? Does those groans and cries that pierced the skies; those pains and sighs, which Jesus bore; convulse the earth and rend the rocks, and yet we remain unfeeling and unmoved! Does all the victories he has gained, and all the glory he reveals, appear so poor in our esteem, that we have no heart to love him. O sinner, you must see him by and by, but not fastened to the cross, to be taunted and mocked by mortals; not to bear the nails and spear; not to bear the insults of rebels; but with the dignity of a Judge "coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory." The earth and heavens shall flee away at his presence; the earth quaking, the seas roaring, and men’s hearts failing them with fear, when worlds on worlds, in one general crush, shall all dissolve in liquid flame. But hark! The judge invites his sheep to his right hand, and they arise above these melting ruins, and shout their loud hosannas with immortal tongues, and say, "Not unto us, not unto us, but unto thy name be the glory." While Jesus says, "Come up ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world." But hear ungodly sinner, here behold the awful contrast; and see at the left hand of the Judge the guilty crowd in deep confusion; and hear them utter their desperate choice in language of wild despair, "Rocks and mountains fall 135on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb, for the great day of his wrath is come, and who shall be able to stand." O that God may awaken the careless, if it may be for his glory, and comfort the mourners in Zion, and grant his children "the spirit of wisdom, of power, and of a sound mind," that they may say with understanding and gratitude, "We know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we should know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ, that is, the true GOD and eternal life."

Triumphs Of Truth: Chapter 11 APPENDIX

Containing three short Letters, addressed to the writers of a pamphlet, recently published, entitled, SIMPLE TRUTH EXAMINED, &C. LETTER I. TO ELDER MOSES HORNADAY. Dear Sir, I have carefully examined a letter, which you published in a pamphlet entitled, "Simple Truth Examined, or a candid refutation of the errors contained in a pamphlet published by the Rev. Wilson Thompson of Lebanon." I can see nothing in your letter calculated to convince of any error, which I hold in the important doctrine in question. Had you written against the doctrine contained in my book, and fairly controverted the subject, you would have acted much more friendly, and I should never have replied to it; but finding that you had [through mistake or otherwise] misrepresented every part of my book which you have noticed, I felt bound in duty to let yourself and the world know that I am not guilty of holding those errors with which you have accused me. If yourself or any of your readers should now think that you have not misconstrued my writings, I hope you and they will examine with me the following sentences in your letter. Before I read the first six lines I met with this strange assertion. "You have taken up the doctrine of the Trinity, and treated it with the utmost contempt." This is somehow a very great mistake of yours, for the book to which you refer says nothing against the doctrine of the Trinity; in that book I have never taken up that doctrine, nor is there one sentence in it in opposition to that doctrine, much less in contempt of it. I have there taken up the distinct tri­personality of the Trinity as a defect in the trinitarian plan of reasoning on this doctrine, and have attempted to show some of the evils of that defect, and how it exposes those who use it to the just censures of the infidel and Arian, and I have stated this defect to be a mischievous, popish tradition, mischievous in its tendency, and veiling to the truth in its nature; all this I do believe, nor is this charging anything to the doctrine of the Trinity. If I were to assert that man was an accountable being, but few would deny it; but if I should attempt to

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support this doctrine by alleging that he was erect, perhaps many might think there was a defect in my plan of reasoning, and some might treat such reasoning with contempt; but this would be a very different thing from treating the doctrine of accountability with contempt; so what I have said against the defects in the tri­personal scheme, is a very different thing from "taking up the doctrine of the Trinity and treating it with the utmost contempt." Now by making this unfortunate and fatal mistake in the very onset of your letter, you have never recovered from this blunder to the close of it. As to the doctrine of the Trinity, I do now, and from the first of my religious life have most firmly believed in it; but as to the tri­personality of the Trinity, I do not believe in it, nor have I for many years; but do view it as a mischievous, popish, anti­ scriptural, anti­christian defect, introduced by the Bishops of Rome, in that flood of error which they invented in order to inundate and envelop or conceal the truth. Now if you did believe that the tri­personal scheme was no defect in the Trinitarians plan of reasoning, you were at liberty to pursue it, and if I thought it was a defect, I did hope I was at liberty to reject it; and in doing this, I never dreamed of any candid man's rising up and accusing me of treating the doctrine of the Trinity with the utmost contempt. I am sorry for this mistake, for it is beyond the most charitable philanthropy to account for it on any other than a malevolent and malign principle, and rather than do this, I will leave it not accounted for at all, and hope the public will treat it with as much clemency as they can, as it might have been a typographical error not noticed in reading the proof ­sheet. On your 18th page you have entered an invective against me, for being compelled to say, "The Father hath committed all judgment to the pre­existent soul of Christ." You have never heard me say any such a thing; it is only an illogical inference, which you have drawn from a perversion of my sentiments, and not a legitimate offspring of my writings. God will judge the world in righteousness, by that man whom he hath ordained, and the man Christ Jesus having received a kingdom as a gift from the Father, hath all judgment in that kingdom committed to him, and the Father will never condemn any of them, for Christ in his mediatorial kingdom has all judgment committed to him, because he is the Son of Man. This mistake was either an unlucky slip of the pen, or an oversight occasioned by too much zeal, without an equal quantum of knowledge. But as men who are passionately fond of controversy, and prone to fall into this error, when they aim more to act the pasquinade than the fair reasoner, I think your crime may be overlooked in the clemency of the public, and I will pass it by. You have no reason to believe from anything which I have written that I am an Atheist, and deny the being and unity of God; and I can appeal to yourself in the face of an enlightened public on this subject, and if you will say that I ever gave you the smallest reason to think that I denied either the being or unity of God, I will never complain of your refutation of my errors; but if not, I ask you before God to answer me the following questions: Did you design your letter to be "a candid refutation of the errors contained in a pamphlet published by

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Wilson Thompson, of Lebanon: Ohio?" Had Wilson Thompson of Lebanon, Ohio, in that pamphlet, denied the Being or Unity of God? Did you entertain the most distant idea that Wilson Thompson of Lebanon, Ohio, was an Atheist? I believe candor will compel you to answer these questions in the negative. Then I would ask you for what reason did you undertake to prove the being and unity of God, in refuting my errors? Did you wish to blacken my character by this insinuation; or had you forgotten that you were writing a candid refutation of the errors contained in my book? Did you not know that the first discourse in that book was written in support of the being and unity of God? Then why must you prove the same in candidly refuting my errors? This was very illiberal, and if you thought it necessary to write on this subject, you ought, as a candid writer, to have stated this as a point of agreement, and not have introduced it as a refutation of my errors. You have written in support of the divinity of Christ, and the Holy Ghost. My second discourse in the pamphlet, which you attempt to refute, is written on the same subject. Then why must you support these points in refuting of my errors? Why did you not act candidly, and state these as points of agreement, and not pretend to be refuting any errors, when you well knew that I believed in these points; as unquestionably as you or any other man could. These things I cannot account for without indulging myself in the unwelcome conclusion, that you were blinded by a malefic spirit, and were giving vent to your spleen; but as I do not wish to be an adherent to any such sensual intruders, I try to lay it aside, as an evidence of the remaining imperfections of a respectable brother, who for once blundered a little to one side of his good old way, and surely we all do many things which would be much better left undone, as well as this unguarded brother, but because he has exposed his faults to the world, they become more notorious, but after a mild reproof for his good, we ought to forgive him as he is but a young transgressor; and we hope he will never be overtaken in this fault again. We have seen frequently that young warriors have more courage than conduct, and if such men's lives are spared after a few defeats, they may make good soldiers; and perhaps after brother H. becomes acquainted with the doctrine of the Trinity a little better, he will know that if a man should mention some defects in the reasonings of the people on the subject, it is not treating the doctrine with contempt; and if he should then undertake to refute my errors, he will try to refute them, and not write on the same side of the question; and try to make his readers believe that I had denied the being and unity of God, the divinity of Christ and the Holy Ghost; but as he happened to join sides with his antagonist, and instead of refuting his errors, gave him all the assistance he could in proving those important truths, I think he ought to be forgiven his crime, which is in insinuating that I had denied these points, and he was refuting my errors. This we all know was a great mistake, and I thought it my duty to let the public know that these insinuations were without foundation, so I will ask the Baptist people to forgive brother H. for this fault, although it is a great one. The only difference, which I can see between us, is, with regard to the tri­personality of the Trinity. You believe that the three that bear record in heaven are three distinct persons, and

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that they are one in essence; while I believe the three are not persons, but that they are one. Now we both believe in the doctrine of the Trinity, you in a trinity of distinct persons, and I deny this tri­personality. The being of God, the unity of God, the divinity of Christ, the divinity of the Holy Ghost, and of the Father, and the doctrine of the Trinity, are all points of agreement between us, and these things you ought to have stated in justice to me and yourself as a candid writer, and not to have insinuated that I had denied these points, by going to establish them under the pretext of a candid refutation of my errors. These things are very illiberal and unjust, and I am very sorry that you have given me so much reason to fear, that you did not write with a good spirit. Your invectives are very cruel, you rank me with "Mohammedans, Socinians, Arians, Sabellians, Deists, and the Bramians;" and you accuse me of being equally hostile with these to the Trinity; see your 33rd page. O brother H.; these are hard things; have you not been too censorious? I think a little repentance would be of use here. The doctrine of the Trinity is a mystery which we can know nothing about except by revelation; and I cannot read anything in the scripture that teaches me that there are three persons in the Godhead, and I cannot feel warranted in believing it, but if you or any of my brethren do believe it, I do not wish to bind your conscience, but to pray for you that God may bless you, and lead us all to know and love the truth. You accuse me of not being a regular Baptist, and that upon my principles baptism is an unmeaning ceremony, which in effect goes to invalidate every baptism, which I have administered. You charge me with aiming to draw off a party from the regular Baptist communion, and that my followers will be called Thompsonites, and those who oppose me will be the Regular Baptists. You intimate that I am a mixture of two ancient heresies, which formerly troubled the church. Many such hard, uncouth, splenetic, and ireful accusations you have in the most unqualified manner, brought against me. Is this the way for one brother to calumniate another? If I were such a heterogeneous mixture of every error, both ancient and modern, how could you call me by the appellation of brother? Let me ask you if I ever acted or said anything like raising a faction in the Baptist church? Did I ever say that those who believed in the tri­personality of the Trinity were not regular Baptists? Did I ever refuse fellowship to, or treat with contempt, any Baptist member, because he differed with me on this subject? Have I not always manifested the greatest willingness to serve my brethren, by day and night, riding through storms and freezes for fifteen years, in which time I have traveled much in Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, and Mississippi Territory, and have baptized about five hundred persons, and now I can appeal to you, and all who know me, and state in positive terms that no man ever heard me say anything like desiring to separate the Baptist church, or draw off a part to be called Thompsonites! No, this world with all its emoluments would never tempt me to lead such a party if my influence was sufficient to seduce thousands. I have lived from the thirteenth year of my age in the Baptist church, and although I have always been a poor unworthy sinner, I hope I have experienced some tokens of divine approbation, and I wish to live the rest of my days on

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earth in the enjoyment of the communion of the same people, believing there to be the only true gospel church on earth. I am now 36 years of age, about 23 of them has past since I was baptized, 15 of them since I have been trying to preach the gospel of Christ, and your pamphlet contains the first invectives which I ever knew the Baptists to issue against me. O that my God may still be with me, and give me much of that charity which "suffereth long and is kind," which envieth not," which "vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil, rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things," and that "never faileth." Then shall I walk in that "more excellent way," and learn from my Lord and Master, that if I am reviled to revile not again; if I am buffeted, not to threaten, but to bear hardness as a good soldier of Jesus Christ; and if I am smitten on one cheek to turn the other also. Dear brother, did you think when you were writing your letter that you were detecting an Alexander, and feeding the gullibility of the public with the mangled frame of a heterodox, who was neither fit for the society of Christians nor heretics, but a mixture of everything that was good for nothing? Well, I am what I am, but let you treat me as you may, I will try to love you as a brother, and pray for your prosperity; and if ever I get to heaven, I hope I shall mingle voices with brother H. in that song which is forever new; O that the Lord may help us now to lift our voices in sweet agreement in proclaiming the glad tidings of salvation to perishing sinners, through the atoning blood of the immaculate Jesus. Then Zion will no longer mourn, her daughters no longer go in sackcloth on account of division, but like the sheep of one fold, they will rest and feed together. Your quotations from Genesis 1:26, "Let us make man," &c, 11:6, 7, "Let us go down and there confound their language;" Isa. 41:21, 22, "Let them bring them forth and shew us" ­"that we may consider them, or disclose us things to come;" Dan. 4: 17, "The decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones;" &c. These texts I should explain of the two natures of Christ, and I should feel fully supported in this from the following considerations. First, man was not made in the image of divinity, but a figure of Christ who should come in the flesh, and as the governor of the lower world. Adam was in the image of God, for he was to subdue the earth. The descendants of Nimrod, who were building a tower when their language was confounded, are to represent a false religion, which is to be confounded by the gospel of Christ, in which both natures of Christ is revealed. Isaiah was speaking of the gospel day; when Christ in both natures should challenge all false prophets and teachers to bring forward any argument against his doctrine, or disclose anything to him which he did not know, or perfectly understand, either of present or future things. The Watchers and Holy Ones was a watcher and an holy one, and so Daniel explains it, vs.23. This heathen king, believing in many gods, says, watchers and holy ones, as he says "holy gods," in the 8th verse, and his using the plural nouns, watchers and holy ones, proves no more than the plural

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noun gods, would prove more than one God. By the watcher, I understand a seer or prophet, in which office the man Christ was visible to the king, and the blazing glory of his divine dignity was the holy one. "No man hath seen God any time," but the human nature is the visible form of the divine Jehovah, for the glory of God is beheld in the face of Jesus. But if it should be granted, that the king saw a plurality of watchers and of holy ones, and if these were divine persons in the Godhead, they would at least prove four such persons, for there must have been more than one watcher, and more than one holy one; and if these texts should be sufficient to prove the doctrine of the Trinity, yet they are no support to the tri­personality of the Trinity, for they would prove too many persons; so they only prove what we both believe, the two natures of Christ, and prove nothing which we split upon. Your quotation from I John 5:7, I have noticed elsewhere, and therefore shall pass it here, as my object is not to controvert your doctrine, but to correct some of your mistakes, which are calculated to gender strife. You say by the term persons, that you do not mean "three beings separate and distinct from each other, nor that each of the persons in the Godhead contain a third part of the Deity; but you mean that in the Godhead to which personal properties can be ascribed." This I never denied. There is in man that of soul, body and spirit; and personal properties may be ascribed to each of them. In the water, in the wind, and in the sun, and in almost everything in nature, we may find a sort of trinity, to which personal properties can be ascribed, but this does not prove the real tri­personality of those visible things. Now if these visible things declare the eternal power and Godhead of their creator, we have no reason to argue from personal properties real tri­ personality. Buck's definition of the word Trinity, that it means "three in one," I agree with, and that it has been "generally applied to the ineffable mystery of three persons in one God" is also true; but that the word Trinity necessarily means three persons in one God, I deny. Distinct personality in the Trinity is the main point of dispute between us; and on your 17th page you request me to attend while you prove this point from the word of God. This I will do with pleasure, and as you propose first to prove the distinct personality of the Father, I will transcribe every word you have said on this subject, which is as follows: "That the Father is God, and that he is a person, cannot be disputed by any however skeptical, I therefore pass on to prove the personality and divinity of the Son of God." I do here confess before the public, that this is the last way to prove a disputed point "by the word of God" that I have ever heard of! Not one text of scripture mentioned! The distinct personality of the Son and Spirit are about as well proven from the word of God, as that of the Father, for instead of the word of God you commence by declaring, "Christ is a person distinct from the person of the Father, and truly God." That he is truly God, I have never denied, and to prove that he as God is a person distinct from the Father, you introduced criticisms on personal acts, nouns, and pronouns, instead of the word of God; and you rely on the same kind of criticism to support the distinct personality of the Holy Ghost. O fie brother H! Your learned criticism will never pass for the word of God! This was a great mistake

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of yours, but you mingled the notion of tri­personality with that of the divinity of the Father, Word, and Holy Ghost, as if I had denied both. This was unbrotherly, for you knew, from the second discourse in Simple Truth, that I was a firm believer in the divinity of each. For this illiberal misrepresentation I blame you, and do think you ought to blame yourself. I have in the first discourse in this book weighed these criticisms, and I refer you to that for my views of their magnitude. You made a great mistake where you took up my views of the human nature of Christ, and on your 391h page undertake to amuse your readers with mockery and criticism, in a number of such sentences as this, "And to you who are troubled, rest with us, when the human soul shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not the human soul, and that obey not the gospel of our human soul of Jesus Christ, who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the human soul, and from the glory of his power." Does this look like a candid writer? O blush, brother H., blush, for you well knew, that although I did believe that Christ had a human soul, [and do you not believe the same?] yet I believed in his divine nature as firmly as yourself, and that God will be the Judge, and that man whom he hath ordained will be that by which he will judge the world in righteousness; and Christ as mediator stands for all the elect, and with respect to them the Father will judge no man; that is, he will condemn none of them, for in Christ the Mediator they have been brought to judgment, and he has been executed for them, and by his stripes they are healed, and by his blood and righteousness, they are freely justified; and shall not be condemned with the world. Christ, because he is the Son of Man, or is in human nature, and in that fills all the offices of his mediatorial character, so in his mediatorial kingdom, all judgment is committed to him, hence it is a judgment which the Father hath given, or committed to him, because he is the Son of Man. This is my understanding of this matter, and let the reader judge whether you ought not to blush at such illicit, ill­natured, and illogical representations. I do believe in the pre­existence of the human nature or soul of Christ, nor has this ever been called heresy by the orthodox that I know of. Dr. Watts, whose hymns we use in common, believed the same; Mr. John Stephens of England [a Baptist minister of high standing] believed the same; John Allen of England, who stood high amongst the orthodox Baptists, believed the same, and denied the tri­personality of the Trinity also; and each of these and many others have written on this subject, but who ever ranked them with heretics? As I have Allen's work by me; entitled "Spirit of Liberty," and signed, JUNIUS JUNIOR, I will give the reader a few quotations from it on this doctrine, by which they will see that I am of the same faith in these matters, with many of the ablest and most orthodox Baptist authors in England, and many of the Calvinistic Paedobaptists were of the same opinion in these matters. In assigning some reasons why Dr. Gill was so earnest to establish his eternal generation creed, Allen says, "Because he [Gill] thinks that the distinction of the first, second,

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and third person in the Godhead, as we have been ignorantly taught, cannot be maintained without it, but [continues he] unhappy as it is for the Doctor, nor with it; for we have not so learned CHRIST by tradition from the fathers, but from the scriptures we know and believe, not as the Doctor teaches, that a first, second, and a third person existeth, the one by nature, the other by being begotten, and the other by procession; such an idea as this of the existence of God is unworthy his name, his nature, and perfections and contrary to the declaration of the truth of CHRIST, who says, I AM­ I am the first; as though he had said, I am of myself, and derive neither essential nor personal glory from any; therefore it is that we believe, according to the sweet simplicity of the scriptures, that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the sacred three that bear record in heaven, self ­exist in every glory and perfection of the divine nature, whether essential or personal as the triune GOD, and that the personal glory of this GOD whom we adore is only in the man CHRIST, who is called in scripture the brightness of GOD'S glory, and the express image of his person." See the Spirit of Liberty, pages 111, 112. Thus you see that many of the orthodox Baptist writers, who were never charged with denying the Trinity, have boldly opposed the tri­personal scheme, and were neither called Mahometans, Arians, Socinians, Deists, Bramins, nor heretics. But you can now represent me as being equally hostile to the Trinity with these heretics, for holding what many of the best writers amongst the orthodox have held ages ago. Have you not been too censorious? Would not a little more candor, moderation and christian forbearance have become you much better? But I hope these were mistakes, and not the fumes of a seditious spirit, although I must confess it looks bad enough, make the best of it; but if I err, let it be on the side of lenity. Your heavy charges against me for saying, that Christ existed in a nature inferior to the Father, both before the world and since, is another mistake of yours; for you have very strangely construed this sentence into an appearance of a denial of the divinity of Christ. Now brother H., you did know, that when I wrote this sentence, I was speaking of the human nature or manhood of Christ, and not of his divinity, and I think you believe that his human nature or manhood was inferior to the Father, as well as I; for you say, p. 23, of the human nature of Christ, that it "was not immutable; " and you think that Jesus in human nature, when a babe, was "destitute of knowledge and reason." This is going much further with his inferiority than I could go, and when you can go this length, you must be very wrong to blame me for only saying his human nature was inferior to the Father, or divine nature. But your design in bringing this charge, seems to be for the sake of taking an advantage, for on your 23rd page you pretend to understand me to hold this human soul to be equal with God, the creator of the world ­ "omnipotent, omniscient, and almighty," and ridicule me on this ground awhile; and go about to prove that all the perfections of God did not belong to his human soul, but before you come to your 34th page, you turn your tune, and instead of supposing me to hold this soul to possess all the perfections of the Deity, you charge me with being "beyond all controversy a Unitarian of some stamp ­partly Arian and partly Sabellian, a mixture of two ancient heresies

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which troubled the church," &c. Here you urge my word inferior to show that I am an Arian. Now we see that you can understand this term just as it suits your turn, sometimes to represent me as an Arian, sometimes to show that I make a god of it, and sometimes to represent me as making it fill the judgment­ seat in the last day distinct from the divinity. O my brother H., I am sorry you have acted so unfairly, and have manifested so little candor. We both believe in the proper manhood of Christ, and if I cannot go with you to the great length of starting him into being in Bethlehem's manger, devoid of any knowledge or reason, &c., we do believe that as God he was greater than he was as man. And I do believe that as man, or in the human essence he was the representative of the elect, in whom they were chosen, and in whom they were beloved, and as the head of the elect he was the object of God's love, ever since that love was a active principle, going forth to an object, and this is what many sound men in Israel have taught. After Mr. Allen has mentioned a number of sound Baptist ministers in England, among whom he classes Gill, Booth, Ryland, &c., he says, "But above all, as a man of God, a champion for truth, as a minister in the pulpit, as a christian in conversation, as a teacher in Israel, there is Mr. Johnson, who surely is the greatest man this day in Israel." This great man says, "That love cannot be before the object loved, and that the object must be coeval with the love fixed upon the object, which object, says he, is Christ." Allen says, "In this he is surely right, for we know, that the love of God is from everlasting, Jer. 31:3, and that Christ, as the object of this love is from everlasting, Prov. 8:23, Mic. 5:2. And that this love is from the foundation of the world, John 17:23. And that the object was before the world was, John 17:5." Allen on the same subject has these words, "All the glory of grace to the elect is nothing else but the treasures of Jehovah's love to his beloved image, his beloved one, his Christ unfolded, revealed and communicated to them; for as Adam loved Eve in her first beauty, with one undivided love, as his own image, being flesh of his flesh, therefore not twain, but one; so there is the same union of nature and love between Christ and his church. Now Christ as the bridegroom, was the church's representative as the object of love, of glory, and of complacency; for she had the same union and existence as part of Christ, as Eve had with Adam, before she had her open existence from him; and if Jehovah was at rest in his love, and took up his delights of love, and Christ rejoiced in this love before the world was; then as surely as he now existeth, so he then existed as the object of it, and in the enjoyment of it; or we are finally at a loss how to understand his own words, for what language can be more emphatical or words more strong, Prov.8: 30, John 17:5." "Thus you see, [Allen continues] I have given you a concise account of the people called Baptists, taking their rise from John the Baptist, from the example of Christ, from the practice of the apostles, from the testimonies of the ancients, through every age, through every king's reign, through every century to the present day; and the same testimonies are now continued by many Baptist teachers in Israel, whom God has counted faithful, and put them into the ministry, who are not ashamed to own or defend the cause, being set for the defense of the gospel." Spirit of Liberty, page 126, 127. This object of Jehovah's love and glory was the

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man Christ, as says the same author, page 113, "Now we see plainly that this glory [which Christ had with the Father before the world] was not the glory of the Deity which is essential to Christ, but is a given glory, and it was a glory given to him as man, which was enjoyed by him before the world began, John 17:5, and [continues he] we believe this early and ancient glory of Christ, as the object of Jehovah's delight, according to the word of truth before the world was." And this says he, is "what Christ affirms, and what the poet sweetly sings of, speaking of the song of angels adoring the man in God, in all the glory of his sonship, before the world was, Prov. 8:22, There the dear man, my Saviour sits; The God, how bright he shines; And scatters infinite delights, On all the happy minds," &c. I have not given these quotations in order to prove the truth of my doctrine, the scriptures alone are my witnesses for this; but as you have accused me of departing from the doctrines of the Baptist Church, I have quoted these authors to show that many of the most orthodox of our denomination have written and believed as I do, therefore you were under a great mistake when you chided me on your 35th page because I did not candidly confess to my brethren that I was not a Baptist in principle; and on page 34 you decide the case in these words, "In fact you are not what you profess to be, a regular Baptist." Well, if you believe me to be such an arch hypocrite and designing impostor, that I profess one thing and believe another, you may urge this as an apology for accusing me of believing many things which I never professed to believe; but be me wicked as I may, or hypocritical as you think me to be, I demand of you to make good your words if you can. The charges and implications which you have published against me are as follows: "For taking up the doctrine of the Trinity and treating it with the utmost contempt" ­for opposing the unity of God, the divinity of Christ, and of the Holy Ghost ­for being equally hostile to the Trinity with Arians, Sabellians, Socinians, Mahomet, Deists, and Bramins for striking a blow at the foundation of the christian faith [see page 35 of your letter] ­and for representing it as a shocking tradition which sprung from the mother of harlots ­for having views of God, the object of our worship, entirely opposed to the sentiments of the Baptist denomination ­for being an Unitarian, and not a Baptist in principle ­for professing one thing and believing another, &c. &c., all of which I do here, in the presence of God and his church, most solemnly deny; and call on you to support these charges and insinuations if you can, or account for them if you please. If they are bare mistakes, which you have made from not being able to understand my book, confess it, and do so no more, and never be in haste to commit yourself in like manner again, and I hope that the many in Zion, who mourn for your folly, will freely forgive you. But if you were forced into these insinuations in order to get something to connive at and oppose, you ought to repent before God for indulging such a spirit. But I would fain hope, that these were mistaken notions, which you had taken of my book, from being too much

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engaged in better business to read it with attention. I have not controverted the doctrine of your letter, but only corrected a few of your mistakes. I have, in this volume, taken up the doctrine of the Trinity, and you may see some of my views on that subject. I have in this letter quoted some of the good old Baptist writers; to show that I have not departed from those who have shone as greater lights in Israel than I ever shall, and let you call me Deist, Bramin, Mahometan, Jew, or hypocrite, I hope one day to meet you in heaven, where you will have lost all those little inimical passions, and if I may be admitted [through sovereign grace] to bow around the throne, I think I shall have no hardness against brother H. Then I ought to feel nothing against him here, and if I do know my own heart; I do feel willing to forgive him; but I did think it was my duty to correct his mistakes, because they were calculated to do mischief, and wound the peace & harmony of churches & individuals among ourselves and abroad. This I have done, and as to our different views of the Trinity; I never wish to despise a brother because he cannot see with me in this point, and do hope that the Baptists will never be divided on this subject. I have many dear brethren that believe in the tri­personal scheme, whom I highly esteem, and to whom I can break bread freely, for we all believe in one God in three that bear record in heaven, and in the divinity of Christ and the Holy Ghost; but I do think that the notion of three distinct persons is a great defect in their plan of reasoning, and they think not; and as we are in an imperfect state, and only know in part, let us travel together until we shall know as we are known. I am yours respectfully, WILSON THOMPSON.

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Elder Wilson Thompson and the Arians (After research, I believe this letter to be spurious or the invention of Wilson Thompson’s son, Grigg who later aligned with the Clark and the means Baptists. This letter was only published in Zion’s Advocate edited by John Clark, an enemy to Beebe, Johnson, et al – HWG). ZION'S ADVOCATE ­ February 4, 1860 We make the following extract of a letter from Elder Wilson Thompson addressed to his son, Elder G. M. Thompson, and published in the "Herald of Truth," which shows very conclusively how he stands towards the Arian party of the present day. The Arians, on the occasion referred to, were as much puzzled by the question propounded to them by Elder Thompson as their "illustrious predecessors" were in the days of our Immanuel, when he interrogated them concerning David’s testimony of the Son of God:­" if David in Spirit called him Lord, how is he his Son?" (Matt. xxii. 41, 46), and they answered, consequently, in a similar way­ by SILENCE. But there is a part of Elder Thompson’s communication which we do not understand, and therefore would respectfully turn upon him his address to Johnson and his party, before propounding to them the several questions found in his letter, and we hope he will enlighten us upon the subject; as we can truly say that we desire to know what he means. For until we understand him, we cannot tell whether we believe what he has written or not. The point about which we seek information is what he says upon the subject of the "ADAMIC MAN." He says "I have no warfare with the ADAMIC MAN, if by him you mean, the man of flesh and bones, muscles and nerves, and mind and soul," &c." If by this Adamic man, we would again inquire, is meant the "OLD MAN" as defined by Paul, which is corrupt with his deeds, we cannot conceive how it is that a Christian has no warfare with him, nor how it is that he has no warfare with the FLESH, since the apostle says, ‘‘ With the MIND I myself serve the law of God; but with the FLESH the law of sin," (Rom. vii. 25), and another apostle admonishes us to " abstain from FLESHLY LUSTS, which war against the soul". (1 Pet. ii. 11). If we have read the Scriptures correctly and understandingly, and have an experience in harmony with the teachings therein, the parties to this warfare will be saved; that Christ died for, and therefore will as certainly redeem the BODY as the SOUL­that be will redeem his people FROM THE POWER OF THE GRAVE; for as our bodies are embraced in the PURCHASED POSSESION, we have the assurance that he will CHANGE OUR VILE BODIES, &c. We cannot see how sin in itself can be detached from the SINNER, and therefore embodied as a distinct man. That Christ has put away the sins of his people by the sacrifice of himself, and will in due time effectually cleanse them from iniquity, and wash them and make them white in his blood, we most assuredly believe, and rejoice in that assurance, yet we have no knowledge of sin, of its existence, except in connection with the sinner. If this should meet the eye of Elder Thompson, (he is not a subscriber to the Advocate, and never has been,) we shall be pleased to hear from him upon the subject. (John Clark) DEAR CHILDREN: With feelings of deep parental affection we acknowledge

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the receipt of your kind letter, We feel much comfort in hearing of your good health. We should have replied sooner, but the Associations were near at hand and we have been constantly on the move, and no time to write. Whitewater Association met with the Shiloh church, Hancock county Ind. on the 2 nd Friday in August. The session was all in peace, and unanimity and harmony, and all the churches reported peace. On Sunday J. F. Johnson preached his doctrine of non­regeneration, and said that the words, "a man must be born again," did not mean a Second birth, or that the child born had ever been born before. Then he said that the spiritual seed or child was preserved in Christ its spiritual head as a woman preserves her fruit in a jar, so that no taint or sour could ever tinge it in the least degree. This holy immortal, incorruptible, spiritual child was the elect, and thus was chosen in Christ, and was in union with him in eternal oneness, and this Seed was never in Adam, never fell, and was never tainted with sin in the least degree. The Adamic man, he said was quite of another family, of another stock, of another kindred, and was not in any relation to Christ, the spiritual head of the church, nor was any change effected on any part at this Adamic man by regeneration or the birth of the spirit, &c. The most of the people left their seats and scattered through the woods while he was at it, and I have not heard of one person in the bounds of this Association who believed this doctrine. Lebanon Association met in Allen county, Ind., 10 miles west of Ft. Wayne, over our hundred miles from where ours sat. We went to it. Some little sparring in the business matters and some difference of doctrine appeared on the stand. Evidently, the most of the preachers of Concreek and Lebanon Associations are deeply in Johnson’s doctrine. On Sunday night Joseph Johnson, son of J. F. Johnson, took up the new doctrine in full. He is a talented young man. He took the same position of his father, and said that this spiritual seed was the elect­that God never elected arty one of Adam’s race­that to be born again did not mean to be born a second time. He roundly asserted that no part of the Adamic man, neither soul, body, nor spirit, mind nor matter, nor any faculty belonging to him, was changed in the least degree, except as they were partially controlled and held in check by surrounding circumstances exercised by the indivelency of this new man. This he said was revealed to every Christian by the spirit, and to none but Christians. After meeting Elders A. B. Nay, J. A. Johnson, Tyler, J. A. Williams, and other elders, with many brethren present, I put many questions to them, all in the following manner; I have heard much preaching of late which if I understand I do not believe. But I am old, and my mind and memory is fast failing me, and I cannot learn new words, names and ideas as readily as formerly, and I may not properly understand or comprehend your meaning, and perhaps if I did I might believe it. I do therefore wish to know fully what you do wish to preach, and then I can

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say positively whether I believe it or not. All I can now say is, if I do understand and comprehend your meaning I do not believe the doctrine­­ Brother Johnson this night has told us that this is the very point, which God by his spirit has revealed to every Christian and to no others, and I well knowing that it has never been revealed to me, if I understand it, I am cut off. It is therefore a matter of great importance to me to know whether I do understand your meaning or not, for if I do now understand your real meaning, I do not believe it, and it has never been revealed to me by the spirit either in the word or any part of my experience. This brings me before you now as an earnest enquirer after truth, and not as a debater. I simply wish to know what you mean, and whether I correctly comprehend your meaning or not. Therefore, please to answer some questions plainly to the point: 1st. What do you mean by the Adamic man? Do you mean the man that God created with his body, mind and all included, and called them Adam with all his descendants in him seminally­are these all your Adamic man or men? Answer­ Yes. 2nd. If this union was between a spiritual, immortal, incorruptible seed and head, could it embrace any of the non elect strangers of Adam’s race, and effect their redemption; and if the spiritual seed was never involved or tainted by any of its effects, did it ever need any redemption, and if the Adamic seed was not in the Union, and of course could not be redeemed, was there anything redeemed by Christ? No one answered. 3rd. Must I not be prepared to renounce all that I have preached or written, or experienced through the first seventy years of my life in order to embrace this new system, if it be a new system? No answer. 4th. If no part or any of the Adamic man is changed or born of the spirit and no part or faculty of the spiritual, immortal man ever needed any change or birth of the spirit, what man is it that must be born again, or is anything born again, either of the old or new man? 5th. Does not this new system, only ten years old, lay the axe at the very root of the Bible, Christian experience, and all that we have ever preached or believed? Answer­We have thought much about this. 6th. If no part of the Adamic man, soul, body, mind nor matter, attribute or affection, is either changed or born by the spirit and never will be until the resurrection, what goes with it in God’s people from the death of the body until the resurrection? No answer. 7th. Brother Johnson this night has beautifully described a converted 149

sinner, mourning on the verge of despair, under a load of conscious guilt, and crying, " God be merciful to me a sinner." Was this the sinless spiritual child or was it the unchanged, unborn Adamic man, or what man was it? No answer. 8th. Did any of you, when you went before the church, to seek its fellowship and admission to its ordinances, say, "friends, I wish to join this church; I have never met with any change in soul, mind, body or affections, or anything else. Therefore as your preachers declare, that neither themselves nor any of you, nor any of Adam’s race, are changed in any part, and I know I am not; I therefore wish to join your church." Did you so tell the church and be received, or would you now receive such an applicant? If not, why preach such doctrine? No answer. 9th. Can any of you tell me of any benefit resulting from the life, death, burial and resurrection of Christ, except the resurrection of the body, according to your doctrine? No answer. 10th Since there is no change in the sinner, and the scriptural man has no sin, is not the doctrine of pardon, forgiveness of sin, justification, with the exercise of mercy, of grace, all a nullity, since the Adamic man can never in this world enjoy any of them, and the sinless spiritual man does not need them? Here they began to ask me the following questions 1st. Do you believe that the soul is changed in regeneration? Answer­I believe the Scriptures. I will not set up metaphysics against metaphysics; your system is all metaphysical, mine is all positive scripture. We many differ widely about what the soul is. I believe the blood of Christ cleanses us from all sin, or purges the consciences to serve the living God, and so cleanses the heart from an evil conscience. I believe the heart is circumcised to love the Lord God. I believe that the eyes of the understanding, which were darkened and blinded, are enlightened and opened so that they may see. I believe they who were dead are quickened. I believe the dead hear the voice of the Son of God and live­call this soul, mind, spirit, or what you will, there is a change, and this change is not effected in the living, sinless, immortal, incorruptible man, but on the blind, dark, dead, corrupt, pointed heart, the evil conscience, and this is some part of the man. So there is a change, and this is all I contend for, and my bible declares it and I believe it. 2nd. If any part of the Adamic man is changed, what causes the warfare you daily feel? Answer­We should call things by their proper name. Your new doctrine has new names unknown to the Bible. Your Adamic man is a new name. I have no warfare with the Adamic man, if by him you mean the man of flesh and bones, muscles and nerves, and mind and soul. I owe this man much, and many

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duties, and I should do all I can to sustain it, and also my Adamic neighbors around me, to clothe, feed, warm, visit them in sickness, &c. This man is the temple for the Holy Ghost to dwell in. God will save this body, this Adamic man, and I owe it my duty as a Christian according to the scriptures. My daily warfare is not with the Adamic man, whom God made, whom Christ redeemed, whom God will raise from the dead and eternally save. But sin and its train of evils and lusts, which war against the soul, these things make the body of the sins of the flesh. This man of sin, this son of perdition, this earthly sensual, devilish thing, which is of its father the devil, the very child of hell, an enemy of all good. God never made it. Christ never redeemed it and it will never be saved nor raised with the just. I owe it no duties I may do all I can to kill it, to starve it, to put it off, to crucify it. It lurks in the flesh the Adamic man, groans under the load and bondage of this corruption, pains, fevers, palsy aid lunacy, and innumerable woes and sufferings prey upon the body, mind, soul and spirit of the Adamic man, and Wars against the soul. This is the sin that dwells in me so that I cannot do the things that I would. This is the enemy of the Adamic man under which it groans, being burdened, and this is the belligerent and vigilant foe against every maim who is renewed in the spirit of his mind, and is led by the spirit, with his mind to serve the law of Christ, is in this incessant warfare. This is my warfare with this man of sin, and not with my Adamic man­ no, but with the trains of evil, which lurk in, effect and punish him, and constantly keep up wars without and fightings within. When I call things by their proper names, this is the Christian warfare. But the Adamic man, soul, mind, saint and body shall be saved, but this old man of sin will never be saved. But God’s people are redeemed, and will be all finally saved from all this evil. Here the talk ended. Connersville, Ind., Sept. 14, 1859.

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Letter to the "Signs" ­­ Jan 25, 1836 Signs of The Times ­­July 1836 Harrisburgh, Ind., Jan. 25, 1836. Brother Beebe: ­­We are in a world of conflicting interests and contending parties. These act as causes producing feuds and turmoil. These embitter the sweets of social life, and blend their unhallowed influence in almost every circle of community. This bane of social harmony not only infects the political and fraternal associations, but too often, like an evil genus, is seen exhibiting its many magic and enticing forms in the theological departments, alluring the weak and unwary, and thus producing divisions in the ranks of that once united band which, like an army with banners marching in the strength of the Lord, has struck, with terror and dismay, every opposing foe, and filled the hearts of aliens with appalling consternation. I have not been altogether an indifferent or idle spectator while these tragical scenes have been passing before the ordeal of the public. I have seen much to admire and much to deplore. I have observed truth and error in contrast, and while some of the partially concealed beauties of the former and many of the partially covered deformities of the latter have been exhibited by the comparison, I have believed an increase of knowledge would be the result. From the earliest age of Christianity up to the present time, men, even Christians, have been prone to be diverted from gospel simplicity by will­ worship, feigned words, vain philosophy, and worldly policy. Spacious displays of these have perverted many, and the glossy and sophistical covering has so effectually concealed the deformity of the fraud, that for a time it was nourished as virtue, and extolled as holy benevolence. Under these expanded appearances of charity and disinterested philanthropy, many, no doubt, who love the truth and wish to walk in it, have inadvertently been engaged with all their energies, not seeing the evil tendency of their course. While we consider all these disguises and the various seducing schemes in which error intrudes itself upon the child of grace, and our own weakness and imperfection, let us learn with meekness and patience to bear with each other. Have we always escaped the snare? Have our feet well nigh slipped? If not give God the glory, but if we have, and this is most likely, let us with patient forbearance, brotherly love, and long suffering, endeavor to convince others of their error froth which we have but just escaped, and give them time to repent; yet while we thus act let plain faithfulness mark every step and a zeal for truth prompt all our actions. While we earnestly contend for the faith and order of the gospel, we shall not be crowned except we strive lawfully­­let us endeavor so to run that we may obtain. The Baptist Church, as their history shows, was set up at the day of Pentecost. Their history from that time to this, is correctly traced among the Waldenses in the valleys of Piedmont and not through the Papal See, or in the church of Rome. Taking this for granted, as all Baptist do, it follows of course that they are intruding on the privileges of the Romish

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church when they claim these plans of which she is the proprietor. It will be vain to pretend that those schemes, which of late have so generally spoiled the peace and divided the ranks of the Baptists, was not first invented by the Church of Rome. I well remember when the missionary plan was first put into operation among the Baptists of the west, the advocates of it would argue that the church of Rome subdued nations by this plan and converted multitudes to her views in this way, and if error was so successfully propagated by this plan, truth could be spread with equal success. This is, then, a scheme of Rome, which to say the least of it, the Baptists have seized upon in order to extend the truth, by the same means which anti­christ had employed for the spread of error. There are schemes exerted for the introduction of the millennial glory. One is to amalgamate all sects irrespective of any principles, and by this modus operandi to destroy all party names, and so effect an universal harmony and communion, and then all party strife and confusion must die and the millennial glories will blaze forth in all its translucent splendor on every nation, expelling every shade of Papal and Pagan superstition from the religious hemisphere, and burn like a flaming beacon on every hill, and the benighted heathen will come from all the habitations of cruelty and pay the tribute of their grateful hearts at the shrine of the King of kings. Others with as much zeal and knowledge suppose this latter day glory, with all its hallowed splendor, will be ushered in by a different policy. These have observed that wealth and learning give power, these being the two great engines of human policy, and the possession of these gives influence, and facilitates enterprise; and knowing how the Pope extended his holy sovereignty and dominion by these agents, combined with a show of benevolence and divine philanthropy, they have seized upon the same combination and with equal zeal have engaged in a similar enterprise. To obtain learning, seminaries and theological schools for religious instruction are gotten up to prepare them for missionary labors; and then send these to the heathen and destitute to instruct them; and to give children the proper bias in infancy to patronize this plan after their maturity, Sunday Schools are employed; and as common school books or the scriptures will not give these young twigs the proper bend to suit the plain. Tracts must be printed suitable to effect this end; and a library of these be procured for the Sunday Schools. To complete this well organized train of events, much wealth is indispensable; hence agents must be sent out to extol this benevolent enterprise, take up collections, obtain donations, establish auxiliary branch societies, and employ every other means compatible with the end which may best secure the two great agents­­money and learning. In this way, children are deprived of the freedom of thought and, in their tender infancy, are made to sub serve these plans. The votaries of this scheme of operation form different societies to conduct the affairs of the different branches of the scheme; all must have money, all must have agents and auxiliaries, all must have a share of power; thus room is made for their preachers: some as agents for some one of these societies, some as domestics, and some as foreign missionaries, some to conduct the different schools, and some to edit their journals, and all in their

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different ways to enlist the youth in their enterprise, and obtain money and learning. The Pope subdued Africa by the plan of a monk who sprinkled the children, and when these came to maturity, they were catholic subjects and Africa was subdued. Now Sunday and Catechism schools are for the same end, and if all our children are taught to read and believe tracts, and admire the benevolence of these societies, who with half an eye cannot see that the whole reins of government, of both Church and State, as far as human agency is concerned, will be in the hands and at the control of this great monopoly, and, like Africa, our freedom is gone like a pleasing dream. The complete and universal success of this scheme is what its friends are avowedly laboring for, it is what they are praying for, and it is what they are grasping learning and wealth for; and when they shall have accomplished their design, they expect the halcyon day to break with divine orbed brightness and lock the jaws, and palsy every arm and tongue that would refuse tribute to this hallowed flame. Now, sir, suppose the first of these plans should succeed, and all parties with their names, should be forever lost in one great body, including all who now fill the ranks of the sects that now exist; and by this amalgamation the millennium should be ushered in; in that case the Catholics and all reformers and Protestants of every grade, with all their diversity of opinions, would be combined­­all would have but one interest, and their numbers would be sufficient to control all nations. Why should we now hear the alarm sounded of Roman Catholic influence in America, and yet see without suspicion, the exertions now making, by many reformers, to identify themselves and their interests with the Catholic Church. Who cannot see what the glories of this millennium would consist of, and who does not know that Constantine established such a one long ago! If either of these plans should succeed, our liberties are jeopardized, and the nation will be governed by the will of the church. If both should succeed, and this is most likely, for in the management of most of these societies, they are united already, and in doctrine and practice they rapidly approximate each other, then wealth, learning, numbers, and minds inclined in youth, and well prepared to act in concert, our liberties are gone at their will. These plans may thus succeed, and just as sure as either, or both of them should, our liberties as a nation and as Christians are lost. The Church of Christ has been a sect, as we have seen above, which has every where been spoken against, while Rome and all her daughters have been inventing, and prosecuting these plans, and must suffer if ever they are consummated; and I believe it is the spirit, and children of Mystery Babylon that is now working, and many of these have crept in among the Baptists, and under the specious pretext of benevolence many lovers of truth are spoiled through this disguise. As a christian, as a politician, as a citizen of the world, or a friend of the Baptists, I stand pledged to oppose with religious firmness, all these plans: and as many of my old friends, have manifested a strong solicitude to know my views on these subjects, who live too remote to know by word of month, I send you this sheet for their perusal. Wilson Thompson

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Letter from Wilson Thompson to Daniel Parker Dear Brother Parker: Some time past, I received a Prospectus from you for publishing by subscription, “The Church Advocate.” I obtained a few subscribers for the work, but hearing that you had declined the prosecution of it, I desisted the solicitation. If the work is still progressing, (as I have lately heard) please inform me, and I will renew my diligence. – I am convinced, that in this day of error, iniquity, superstition and perversion, a work of this kind well managed, would be very useful. The world is almost deluged with periodicals, tracts, and religious newspapers, but the truth is as hard to find in them, as good silver in a counterfeit dollar, that is not worth reading again, yet some of it is so tinged with truth, that it would pass pretty well by moonlight. I have thought for several years of undertaking such a work myself, but hitherto I have deferred it; and if you should go on with yours, I should be glad to occupy some of its pages, but the distance is so great that the postage would be rather too heavy a tax. I have heard that yourself and elder Newport intend making us a visit next summer; this news is highly gratifying to many of the Lord's people in this region, but to none more than myself – do come, dear brethren do come. I have read with some attention, your views of the “Two Seeds,” and also “The Second Dose,” in both of which I found much to approve, nay, to admire; but The Second Dose is much better sweetened than the first; and it being “dealt out in broken doses,” became less alarming to the patient, especially those who had but a light touch of the legal fever. Arminianism occupies different thrones in different people. In the Christian, it sits in the head; but in the unconverted, it sits in the heart – the head is the seat of judgment, but the heart is the seat of affections. In the former case, broken doses of suitable medicine, skillfully administered, with a few drops of promise­cordial, and a little eye salve from the apothecary of self­abasement, and a few strengthening plasters, made of the sovereignty and immutability of God's purposes, confirmed by his oath to the heirs of promise, will put all to rights, and the nerves being strengthened, the stomach cleansed, and the eyes healed, the delirium will subside, and the judgment and affections will unite and make war with this old king; and if they should not slay him, they will cast him in prison, and refuse to support him, because he is a traitor. But if the latter be the case, do all you can with the head or judgment, and if you get it as sound as a rock, so that it sounds as clear as a bell “salvation to the Lord,” the man will still serve the old king, for he is governed more by his affections than by his judgment. Religion is in a state of mediocrity with us. The churches are well united in the gospel, and stand in “one Lord, one faith, and one baptism.” The Glassites,

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or the Sandimenian philosophy, as taught by A. Campbell and others, made some rapid surges against the strong battlements of God's invincible Zion, and had the Lord's Magazine been exhausted, the siege would have been fatal, but the stores were full, and the word of the Lord roared out of Zion, and the siege was soon raised, the philosophers fled in disgrace, and we hear but little more of them in these parts. Health, crops and markets are good. The weather is very fluctuating, with very frequent rains. It has got so late in the evening that I must drop my pen until to­morrow morning. This is a warm cloudy Christmas morning, and I have been thinking on the birth of Christ, and the song of the angels, and wondering how I could feel so languid and cold, while I reflect on the advent of the Saviour of his people – yes, his people, his seed, his church; which in the bonds of eternal indissoluble love, was one body, inseparably joined to one head, in whom they all have their sonship, and filial relation to one father, as joint heirs with their first born brother, both to his victories and his glories, his righteousness and promises, his fullness and crown. You know the children of God are called a gift to Christ, as he said “Behold I and the children which God hath given me” – hence, they were the children of God, and as such they were given to Christ as his brethren, and so he said, “I will confess thy name among my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing unto thee.” Thus they are the children of God, and brethren of Christ, embraced with him in the same covenant or will of their father. – This is a glorious subject, in which, much of heaven, much of grace, much of glory and of God, is revealed to men. This bond, like heaven's charter, secures inviolably the rights of the heirs – holds in its immutable circumscription, the whole family, both in earth and heaven, and with the power of irresistible attraction, draws them all to the centre, until they shall all be perfect in one. The relation subsisting between Christ and the elect has its origin and consummation in the sovereign and immutable love of God. This love knew no beginning, and is as durable as eternity; it tempers and harmonizes every link in our salvation; it exhibits its divine excellence in every grace of the spirit, of mercy and justice, in all the system of redemption, justification, pardon, perseverance and glory; and while God is love, he will hold his elect within his Omnipotent grasp, and none shall be able to pluck them out of his hand. Now, dear brother, this is love; not that we loved God, but that he loved us; this loves takes our affections captive, and we love him because he first loved us. O that we may enjoy its constant influence, and love God with all our hearts, and each other as brethren, the children of one father. My family is in good health – Give my respects to all the brethren, I am yours in the Gospel, WILSON THOMPSON

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